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Lipogenic diets that are completely devoid of methionine and choline (MCD) induce hepatic steatosis. MCD feeding also provokes systemic weight loss, for unclear reasons. In this study, we found that MCD feeding causes profound hepatic suppression of the gene encoding stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 (SCD-1), an enzyme whose regulation has significant(More)
Insulin resistance is necessary but not sufficient for the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes results when pancreatic beta-cells fail to compensate for insulin resistance by increasing insulin production through an expansion of beta-cell mass or increased insulin secretion. Communication between insulin target tissues and beta-cells may initiate this(More)
Microscopic findings in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) at autopsy include a wide cortical distribution of beta amyloid (Aβ)-containing plaques and diminished numbers of pyramidal neurons in CA1 of hippocampus and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC). To better understand the neuropathology underlying cognitive decline in AD, we(More)
Intracranial meningiomas are often indolent tumors which typically grow over years to decades. Nonetheless, meningiomas that progress after maximum safe resection and radiation therapy pose a significant therapeutic challenge and effective therapies have yet to be identified. Preclinical studies implicate angiogenesis in the pathophysiology of more(More)
Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of(More)
Lung fibrosis is characterized by excessive deposition of extracellular matrix. This affects not only tissue architecture and function, but it also influences fibroblast behavior and thus disease progression. Here we describe the expression of elastin, type V collagen and tenascin C during the development of bleomycin‐induced lung fibrosis. We further(More)
Intravenous administration of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I complexed with phospholipid has been shown to rapidly reduce plaque size in both animal models and humans. Short synthetic amphipathic peptides can mimic the antiatherogenic properties of apoA-I and have been proposed as alternative therapeutic agents. In this study, we investigated the atheroprotective(More)
(214 words) Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diets cause steatohepatitis in rodents and are used to study the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in human beings. The most widely-used commercial MCD formulas not only lack methionine and choline, but also contain excess sucrose and fat. The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary(More)
We describe a sensitive technique for measuring long-term islet cell proliferation rates in vivo in rats. Pancreatic islets were isolated and the incorporation of deuterium ((2)H) from heavy water ((2)H(2)O) into the deoxyribose moiety of DNA was measured by GC-MS. The results of heavy water labeling and BrdU staining were compared. The two methods were(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as biomarkers of metabolic status, etiological factors in complex disease, and promising drug targets. Recent reports suggest that miRNAs are critical regulators of pathways underlying the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we demonstrate by deep sequencing and real-time quantitative PCR that hepatic levels of(More)