Scott M. Hofer

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While many behavioral scientists believe that gene-environment (GE) interactions play an important and perhaps pervasive role in human development and aging, little attention has been devoted to a fundamental conceptual issue: What is it about social context that could alter gene expression? We draw on existing examples of GE interactions to formulate a(More)
We investigated relationships among maternal and child characteristics, and two aspects of maternal child-feeding styles that may place daughters at risk for developing problems with energy balance. Participants included 104 overweight (BMI> or =25) and 92 non-overweight (BMI<25) mothers and their 5-year-old, non-Hispanic, White daughters. Child-feeding(More)
Most psychological theories predict associations among processes that transpire within individuals. However, these theories are often tested by examining relationships at the between-persons (BP) rather than the within-persons (WP) level. The authors examined the WP and BP relationships between daily stress and daily variability in cognitive performance.(More)
Correlations among rates of change in sensory and cognitive functioning in adulthood were evaluated. Measures of Vision, Hearing, Memory, Speed and Verbal ability were obtained in 1992, 1994, and 2000 in the Australian Longitudinal Study of Aging (N = 2,087 at baseline). Data from 1,823 participants who undertook at least 1 clinical assessment were analyzed(More)
BACKGROUND Cross-sectional studies of samples varying widely in age have found moderate to high levels of shared age-related variance among measures of cognitive and physiological capabilities, leading researchers to posit common factors or common causal influences for diverse age-related phenomenon. OBJECTIVE The influence of population average changes(More)
BACKGROUND Higher education has been posited to protect against cognitive decline, either because the rate of decline is slower in the more highly educated or the start of decline is delayed. Latent growth models provide improved methodology to examine this issue. METHODS The sample consisted of 887 participants aged 70-93 years in 1991 and followed up in(More)
We examined change in neuropsychological test performance related to type 2 diabetes mellitus across a 6-year interval. A population-based sample of 274 elderly participants (36 with diabetes and 238 without diabetes) was examined at four occasions at a 2-year interval. The participants were 80-93 years of age (M = 82.8 years) and without dementia at(More)
Change in cognitive abilities was assessed over a 6-year period in a sample of monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twin pairs (N = 507 individuals), aged 80 and older (mean age = 83.3 years: SD = 3.1). who remained nondemented over the course of the study. Latent growth models (LGMs) show that chronological age and time to death are consistent predictors of(More)
Researchers often face a dilemma: Should they collect little data and emphasize quality, or much data at the expense of quality? The utility of the 3-form design coupled with maximum likelihood methods for estimation of missing values was evaluated. In 3-form design surveys, four sets of items. X, A, B, and C are administered: Each third of the subjects(More)
CONTEXT Comorbid severe mental health problems complicating intellectual disability are a common and costly public health problem. Although these problems are known to begin in early childhood, little is known of how they evolve over time or whether they continue into adulthood. OBJECTIVE To study the course of psychopathology in a representative(More)