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The forebrain cholinergic system promotes higher brain function in part by signaling through the M(1) muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR). During Alzheimer's disease (AD), these cholinergic neurons degenerate, therefore selectively activating M(1) receptors could improve cognitive function in these patients while avoiding unwanted peripheral responses… (More)
Orexins/hypocretins are key neuropeptides responsible for regulating central arousal and reward circuits. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, orexin 1 receptor (OX(1)R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX(2)R) with partially overlapping nervous system distributions. Genetic studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could be therapeutic for insomnia and other… (More)
Orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides promote wakefulness by signaling through two G-protein coupled receptors, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX(1)R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX(2)R). MK-6096 is an orally bioavailable potent and selective reversible antagonist of OX(1)R and OX(2)R currently in clinical development for insomnia. In radioligand binding and functional cell… (More)
Orexin is a key neurotransmitter of central arousal and reward circuits in the CNS. Two receptors respond to orexin signaling, Orexin 1 Receptor (OX1R) and Orexin 2 Receptor (OX2R) with partially overlapping brain distributions. Genetic and pharmacological studies suggest orexin receptor antagonists could provide therapeutic benefit for insomnia and other… (More)
The epidemics of obesity and metabolic disorders have well-recognized health and economic burdens. Pharmacologic treatments for these diseases remain unsatisfactory with respect to both efficacy and side-effect profiles. Here, we have identified a potential central role for T-type calcium channels in regulating body weight maintenance and sleep. Previously,… (More)
The novel T-type antagonist ( S)- 5 has been prepared and evaluated in in vitro and in vivo assays for T-type calcium ion channel activity. Structural modification of the piperidine leads 1 and 2 afforded the fluorinated piperidine ( S)- 5, a potent and selective antagonist that displayed in vivo CNS efficacy without adverse cardiovascular effects.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the performance of 2 automated systems, Morpheus and Somnolyzer24X7, with various levels of human review/editing, in scoring polysomnographic (PSG) recordings from a clinical trial using zolpidem in a model of transient insomnia. METHODS 164 all-night PSG recordings from 82 subjects collected during 2 nights of sleep, one under… (More)
Despite increased understanding of the biological basis for sleep control in the brain, few novel mechanisms for the treatment of insomnia have been identified in recent years. One notable exception is inhibition of the excitatory neuropeptides orexins A and B by design of orexin receptor antagonists. Herein, we describe how efforts to understand the origin… (More)
A novel series of amide T-type calcium channel antagonists were prepared and evaluated using in vitro and in vivo assays. Optimization of the screening hit 3 led to identification of the potent and selective T-type antagonist 37 that displayed in vivo efficacy in rodent models of epilepsy and sleep.
T-type calcium channels have been implicated in many behaviorally important neurophysiological processes, and altered channel activity has been linked to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders such as insomnia, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, depression, schizophrenia, and pain. We have previously identified a number of potent and selective T-type… (More)