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BACKGROUND In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in(More)
The non-NMDA class of ionotropic glutamate receptors are subject to RNA editing resulting in single amino acid changes within individual subunits that make up these oligomeric receptors. These amino acid changes result in significant alterations of important channel properties. Both edited and unedited versions of the kainate-receptor subunits GluR5 and(More)
1. Patch-clamp recordings were made from rat cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In cells pre-exposed to concanavalin A (ConA) to remove kainate receptor desensitization, concentration-response data for kainate showed two components. The EC50 value for the high-affinity component (4 microM) was consistent with activation of kainate-type channels.(More)
The present study was designed to evaluate the time course and manner of Purkinje cell death following a single ethanol dose delivered intragastrically on postnatal day (PN) 4 to rat pups. Analysis included immunolabeling of Purkinje cells with antibody specific for calbindin D28k and counting of Purkinje cells in each lobule of a mid-vermal slice. Terminal(More)
Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ER alpha, ER beta) in the posteromedial barrel subfield (PMBS) of the cerebral cortex in developing and adult female rats. Counting of immunopositive cells in predefined areas from each layer of the PMBS showed that at PN3, ER alpha(More)
Three anti-peptide antisera were raised against three distinct amino acid sequences of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3), characterized by Western blot analyses, and used to determine the distribution of NTPDase3 protein in adult rat brain. The three antisera all yielded similar immunolocalization data, leading to increased(More)
Experimental studies investigating the effects of endocrine disruptors frequently identify potential unconventional dose-response relationships called non-monotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships. Standardized approaches for investigating NMDR relationships in a risk assessment context are missing. The aim of this work was to develop criteria for(More)
BACKGROUND There is wide-spread human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA), a ubiquitous estrogenic endocrine disruptor that has been implicated as having potentially harmful effects on human heart health. Higher urine BPA concentrations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular diseases in humans. However, neither the nature nor the mechanism(s) of BPA(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that ethanol exposure during the vulnerable postnatal (PN) day 4-6 period results in a dose-dependent loss of Purkinje neurons in rats by apoptosis. Although the mechanism of ethanol action and the reasons for Purkinje cell vulnerability are unknown, we hypothesize that during the PN4-6 vulnerable period Purkinje cells are(More)
Estrogen receptors (ER) play a significant role in the development of some regions of the mammalian brain. Recently, ER-beta (ERbeta) mRNA and protein were shown to be expressed in the rat cerebellum. In the present study, the ontogeny of ERbeta protein expression was examined in the rat cerebellum during postnatal development. Western blot analysis(More)