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BACKGROUND In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in(More)
The present study was designed to evaluate the time course and manner of Purkinje cell death following a single ethanol dose delivered intragastrically on postnatal day (PN) 4 to rat pups. Analysis included immunolabeling of Purkinje cells with antibody specific for calbindin D28k and counting of Purkinje cells in each lobule of a mid-vermal slice. Terminal(More)
Three anti-peptide antisera were raised against three distinct amino acid sequences of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 3 (NTPDase3), characterized by Western blot analyses, and used to determine the distribution of NTPDase3 protein in adult rat brain. The three antisera all yielded similar immunolocalization data, leading to increased(More)
The non-NMDA class of ionotropic glutamate receptors are subject to RNA editing resulting in single amino acid changes within individual subunits that make up these oligomeric receptors. These amino acid changes result in significant alterations of important channel properties. Both edited and unedited versions of the kainate-receptor subunits GluR5 and(More)
In addition to regulating estrogen receptor-dependent gene expression, 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) can directly influence intracellular signaling. In primary cultured cerebellar neurons, E(2) was previously shown to regulate growth and oncotic cell death via rapid stimulation of ERK1/2 signaling. Here we show that ERK1/2 signaling in the cerebellum of neonatal(More)
Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ER alpha, ER beta) in the posteromedial barrel subfield (PMBS) of the cerebral cortex in developing and adult female rats. Counting of immunopositive cells in predefined areas from each layer of the PMBS showed that at PN3, ER alpha(More)
A serum- and steroid-free primary culture system was developed for the maintenance and automated analysis of cerebellar granule cell viability. Conventional poly-lysine coated 96-well tissue culture plates serve as a platform for growth, experimental manipulation and subsequent automated analysis of these primary cultured neurons. Cerebellar granule neurons(More)
Experimental studies investigating the effects of endocrine disruptors frequently identify potential unconventional dose-response relationships called non-monotonic dose-response (NMDR) relationships. Standardized approaches for investigating NMDR relationships in a risk assessment context are missing. The aim of this work was to develop criteria for(More)
A technique is described that allows for the identification and quantification of Purkinje cell loss in cerebellum subsequent to developmental toxic exposures. This technique relies upon the extensively validated findings that the Purkinje cell is the only site of expression in the cerebellum of the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28k. Thus, analysis of(More)
1. Patch-clamp recordings were made from rat cerebellar granule cells in primary culture. In cells pre-exposed to concanavalin A (ConA) to remove kainate receptor desensitization, concentration-response data for kainate showed two components. The EC50 value for the high-affinity component (4 microM) was consistent with activation of kainate-type channels.(More)