Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMCs) are a high latitude phenomenon known to occur at altitudes near 83 km at times near the summer solstice and are related to the phenomenon of Noctilucent Clouds (NLCs). The first recorded sighting of an NLC occurred in 1885 and there is evidence that the frequency of occurrence of NLCs is increasing. This increase suggests… (More)
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Michael Domjan lab for their help over the years. Sperm competition results when sperm from rival males compete to fertilize the ovum of a single female. Typically, paternity rates are proportional to the amount of sperm available during fertilization windows. Two males mating in immediate succession with the same female, transferring similar quantities of… (More)
M. Mahowald, in his work on bo-resolutions, constructed a bo-module splitting of the spectrum bo ∧ bo into a wedge of summands related to integral Brown-Gitler spectra. In this paper, a similar splitting of bo ∧ tmf is constructed. This splitting is then used to understand the bo *-algebra structure of bo * tmf and allows for a description of bo * tmf.
Methamphetamine (MA) use is becoming commonplace, and emergency physicians (EPs) are seeing patients with abuse-associated complications. Previous reports have described inhalational and intravenous routes. We present the second case of rectal MA abuse in the literature. Trans-rectal use is important for EPs to consider because ongoing absorption of massive… (More)
 The nitric oxide (NO) density in the lower thermosphere has been calculated by a photochemical model for NOx and compared with measured NO densities from Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE). At higher latitudes the most important contributor for NO density increases is energetic electron precipitation. The electron energy is estimated in two ways, from… (More)
Beginning on March 11, 1998, the Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) satellite has made daily observations of the solar soft x-ray irradiance. These measurements are carried out by a multi-channel photometer system utilizing x-ray sensitive photodiodes with individual thin film filters. Current from the photodiodes is analyzed in terms of a solar reference… (More)
The Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE) is a small scientific spacecraft designed to launch on a Pega-sus ™ XL vehicle for the Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative. Its scientific goals are to measure nitric oxide density in the lower thermosphere and to analyze the solar and magnetospheric influences that create it and cause its abundance to vary… (More)
Accurate knowledge of the electron density structure of the Earth's upper atmosphere is crucial to forecasting the performance of transionospheric radio signals. For this research, we focus on storm-time structuring in the mid-to high latitude ionosphere where large gradients in electron density can cause severe degradation of communication and navigation… (More)
 Temperature, or alternatively, saturation vapor pressure (P SAT), dominantly controls the polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) seasonal onset and termination, characterized by a strong anticorrelated relationship between the Solar Occultation for Ice Experiment (SOFIE)-observed PMC frequency and P SAT on intraseasonal time scales. SOFIE is highly sensitive to… (More)