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This paper reports our contribution to the 2013 NLI Shared Task. The purpose of the task was to train a machine-learning system to identify the native-language affiliations of 1,100 texts written in English by nonnative speakers as part of a high-stakes test of general academic English proficiency. We trained our system on the new TOEFL11 corpus, which(More)
We have reported recently that syntaxin 1A mediates two effects on N-type channels transiently expressed in tsA-201 cells: a hyperpolarizing shift in the steady-state inactivation curve as well as a tonic inhibition of the channel by G-protein betagamma subunits (Jarvis et al., 2000). Here we have examined some of the molecular determinants and factors that(More)
Using transient calcium phosphate transfection into the human embryonic kidney tsa-201 cell line and subsequent whole-cell patch-clamp protocols, we examined the tonic modulation of cloned N- and P/Q-type calcium channels by five different G protein beta subunits via strong depolarizing voltage prepulses. For N- and P/Q-type channels, the magnitude of(More)
The direct modulation of N-type calcium channels by G protein betagamma subunits is considered a key factor in the regulation of neurotransmission. Some of the molecular determinants that govern the binding interaction of N-type channels and Gbetagamma have recently been identified (see, i.e., Zamponi, G. W., Bourinet, E., Nelson, D., Nargeot, J., and(More)
We recently described domains II and III as important determinants of fast, voltage-dependent inactivation of R-type calcium channels (Spaetgens, R. L., and Zamponi, G. W. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 22428-22438). Here we examine in greater detail the structural determinants of inactivation using a series of chimeras comprising various regions of wild type(More)
Ca 2+ influx through neuronal voltage-dependent Ca 2+ channels mediates a range of cytoplasmic responses, including the release of neurotransmitters, activation of Ca 2+-dependent enzymes and regulation of neuronal excitability 1,2. Several disorders have been linked to excessive Ca 2+ entry into the cytosol, and mutations and deletions in genes encoding Ca(More)
Voltage-dependent inactivation of calcium channels is a key mechanism for regulating intracellular calcium levels and neuronal excitability. In sodium and potassium channels, the molecular determinants that govern fast inactivation involve pore block by a cytoplasmic gating particle. As we discuss here, there is an increasing body of evidence that is(More)
The modulation of N-type calcium current by protein kinases and G-proteins is a factor in the fine tuning of neurotransmitter release. We have previously shown that phosphorylation of threonine 422 in the alpha(1B) calcium channel domain I-II linker region resulted in a dramatic reduction in somatostatin receptor-mediated G-protein inhibition of the(More)
N-type Ca 2ϩ channels are modulated by a variety of G-protein-coupled pathways. Some pathways produce a transient, voltage-dependent (VD) inhibition of N channel function and involve direct binding of G-protein subunits; others require the activation of intermediate enzymes and produce a longer-lasting, voltage-independent (VI) form of inhibition. The ratio(More)
Cysteine string proteins (CSPs) are secretory vesicle proteins bearing a "J domain" and a palmitoylated cysteine-rich "string" region that are critical for neurotransmitter release. The precise role of CSP in neurotransmission is controversial. Here, we demonstrate a novel interaction between CSP, receptor-coupled trimeric GTP binding proteins (G proteins),(More)