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We describe analytical and numerical collisional evolution calculations for the size distribution of icy bodies in the Kuiper Belt. For a wide range of bulk properties, initial masses, and orbital parameters, our results yield power-law cumulative size distributions, NC ∝ r , with qL ≈ 3.5 for large bodies with radii, r & 10–100 km, and qs ≈ 2.5–3 for small… (More)

We describe new planetesimal accretion calculations in the Kuiper Belt that include fragmentation and velocity evolution. All models produce two power law cumulative size distributions, NC ∝ r for radii ∼< 0.3–3 km and NC ∝ r for radii ∼> 1–3 km. The power law indices are nearly independent of the initial mass in the annulus, M0; the initial eccentricity of… (More)

- Scott J. Kenyon
- 1999

We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, objects with radii of 100–1000 km can form on timescales of 10–100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies… (More)

This chapter summarizes analytic theory and numerical calculations for the formation and collisional evolution of KBOs at 20–150 AU. We describe the main predictions of a baseline self-stirring model and show how dynamical perturbations from a stellar flyby or stirring by a giant planet modify the evolution. Although robust comparisons between observations… (More)

- Scott J. Kenyon
- 2001

This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35–50 AU, single-annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50–500 km objects on timescales of 10–30 Myr in a… (More)

We use a multiannulus planetesimal accretion code to investigate the growth of icy planets in the outer regions of a planetesimal disk. In a quiescent minimum mass solar nebula, icy planets grow to sizes of 1000–3000 km on a timescale tP ≈ 15 − 20 Myr (a/30 AU), where a is the distance from the central star. Planets form faster in more massive nebulae.… (More)

We use a hybrid, multiannulus, n-body–coagulation code to investigate the growth of km-sized planetesimals at 0.4–2 AU around a solar-type star. After a short runaway growth phase, protoplanets with masses of ∼ 10 g and larger form throughout the grid. When (i) the mass in these ‘oligarchs’ is roughly comparable to the mass in planetesimals and (ii) the… (More)

We describe gravitational stirring models of planetary debris disks using a new multi-annulus planetesimal evolution code. The current code includes gravitational stirring and dynamical friction; future studies will include coagulation, fragmentation, Poynting-Robertson drag, and other physical processes. We use the results of our calculations to… (More)

- R M Thorn, P Gupta, S J Kenyon, J F Ferrer
- Infection and immunity
- 1981

Cattle lymphocytes cultured for 3 days were found to spontaneously incorporate thymidine (3STI). Under optimal conditions of culture, the median magnitude of 3STI activity in lymphocytes from bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle was higher than that of BLV-free cattle, but the ranges of the values overlapped. However, the 3STI activity of most… (More)

- J F Ferrer, R R Marshak, D A Abt, S J Kenyon
- Journal of the American Veterinary Medical…
- 1979