Scott J. Kenyon

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We describe new planetesimal accretion calculations in the Kuiper Belt that include fragmentation and velocity evolution. All models produce two power law cumulative size distributions, N C ∝ r −2.5 for radii ∼ < 0.3–3 km and N C ∝ r −3 for radii ∼ > 1–3 km. The power law indices are nearly independent of the initial mass in the annulus, M 0 ; the initial(More)
We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, objects with radii of 100–1000 km can form on timescales of 10–100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies(More)
We describe planetesimal accretion calculations in the Kuiper Belt. Our evolution code simulates planetesimal growth in a single annulus and includes velocity evolution but not fragmentation. Test results match analytic solutions and duplicate previous simulations at 1 AU. In the Kuiper Belt, simulations without velocity evolution produce a single runaway(More)
This chapter summarizes analytic theory and numerical calculations for the formation and collisional evolution of KBOs at 20–150 AU. We describe the main predictions of a baseline self-stirring model and show how dynamical perturbations from a stellar flyby or stirring by a giant planet modify the evolution. Although robust comparisons between observations(More)
The Kuiper belt extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 au to an abrupt outer edge about 50 au from the Sun. Beyond the edge is a sparse population of objects with large orbital eccentricities. Neptune shapes the dynamics of most Kuiper belt objects, but the recently discovered planet 2003 VB12 (Sedna) has an eccentric orbit with a perihelion distance of 70(More)
This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper Belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35–50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50–500 km objects on timescales of 10–30 Myr in a(More)
We investigate the prospects for detecting dust from two body collisions during the late stages of planet formation at 1–150 AU. We develop an analytic model to describe the formation of a dusty cloud of debris and use numerical coagulation and n-body calculations to predict observable signals from these events. In a minimum mass solar nebula, collisions of(More)
We use a multiannulus accretion code to investigate debris disks in the terrestrial zone, at 0.7–1.3 AU around a 1 M ⊙ star. Terrestrial planet formation produces a bright dusty ring of debris with a lifetime of 10 6 yr. The early phases of terrestrial planet formation are observable with current facilities; the late stages require more advanced instruments(More)