Scott J. Kenyon

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We describe new planetesimal accretion calculations in the Kuiper Belt that include fragmentation and velocity evolution. All models produce two power law cumulative size distributions, N C ∝ r −2.5 for radii ∼ < 0.3–3 km and N C ∝ r −3 for radii ∼ > 1–3 km. The power law indices are nearly independent of the initial mass in the annulus, M 0 ; the initial(More)
We describe calculations of the evolution of an ensemble of small planetesimals in the outer solar system. In a solar nebula with a mass of several times the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, objects with radii of 100–1000 km can form on timescales of 10–100 Myr. Model luminosity functions derived from these calculations agree with current observations of bodies(More)
We describe planetesimal accretion calculations in the Kuiper Belt. Our evolution code simulates planetesimal growth in a single annulus and includes velocity evolution but not fragmentation. Test results match analytic solutions and duplicate previous simulations at 1 AU. In the Kuiper Belt, simulations without velocity evolution produce a single runaway(More)
This chapter summarizes analytic theory and numerical calculations for the formation and collisional evolution of KBOs at 20–150 AU. We describe the main predictions of a baseline self-stirring model and show how dynamical perturbations from a stellar flyby or stirring by a giant planet modify the evolution. Although robust comparisons between observations(More)
The Kuiper belt extends from the orbit of Neptune at 30 au to an abrupt outer edge about 50 au from the Sun. Beyond the edge is a sparse population of objects with large orbital eccentricities. Neptune shapes the dynamics of most Kuiper belt objects, but the recently discovered planet 2003 VB12 (Sedna) has an eccentric orbit with a perihelion distance of 70(More)
Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 14 cattle infected with the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and 14 BLV-free cattle were examined by the membrane immunofluorescent antibody technique to detect surface immunoglobulin (S-Ig) and by the erythrocyte-antibody-complement (EAC) rosette test for the detection of complement receptors. Direct comparisons of the(More)
Studies in well-characterized cattle populations strongly support the view that the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of the adult (enzootic) form of bovine lymphosarcoma and persistent lymphocytosis (PL), and that host genetic factors play an important role in the development of these two conditions. On the other hand, the available(More)
This paper reviews coagulation models for planet formation in the Kuiper Belt, emphasizing links to recent observations of our and other solar systems. At heliocentric distances of 35–50 AU, single annulus and multiannulus planetesimal accretion calculations produce several 1000 km or larger planets and many 50–500 km objects on timescales of 10–30 Myr in a(More)