Scott Holmberg

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BACKGROUND AIDS-related death and disease rates have declined in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and remain low; however, current causes of death in HAART-treated patients remain ill defined. OBJECTIVE To describe mortality trends and causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the HAART era. DESIGN Prospective, multicenter,(More)
BACKGROUND The increasing health burden and mortality from hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the United States are underappreciated. OBJECTIVE To examine mortality from HBV; HCV; and, for comparison, HIV. DESIGN Analysis of U.S. multiple-cause mortality data from 1999 to 2007 from the National Center for Health Statistics. SETTING(More)
BACKGROUND Persons who are HIV-infected may be at higher risk for certain types of cancer than the general population. OBJECTIVE To compare cancer incidence among HIV-infected persons with incidence in the general population from 1992 to 2003. DESIGN Prospective observational cohort studies. SETTING United States. PATIENTS 54,780 HIV-infected(More)
The incidence of nearly all AIDS-defining opportunistic infections (OIs) decreased significantly in the United States during 1992-1998; decreases in the most common OIs (Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia ¿PCP, esophageal candidiasis, and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex ¿MAC disease) were more pronounced in 1996-1998, during which time highly active(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS The smoking of "crack" cocaine is thought to be associated with high-risk sexual practices that accelerate the spread of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied 2323 young adults, 18 to 29 years of age, who smoked crack regularly or who had never smoked crack. The study participants, recruited from the(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to estimate the size and direction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) with populations greater than 500,000. METHODS A "components model" from review of more than 350 documents, several large datasets, and information from 220 public health personnel was used. Data(More)
OBJECTIVE The Antiretroviral Treatment Access Study (ARTAS) assessed a case management intervention to improve linkage to care for persons recently receiving an HIV diagnosis. METHODS Participants were recently diagnosed HIV-infected persons in Atlanta, Baltimore, Los Angeles and Miami. They were randomized to either standard of care (SOC) passive(More)
OBJECTIVES Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a newly discovered human gammaherpesvirus, is found in the majority of KS lesions from patients with and without AIDS. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were examined for KSHV DNA to determine whether viral infection precedes onset of this neoplasm. DESIGN Randomized and blinded(More)
BACKGROUND Since 1985, donors of organs or tissues for transplantation in the United States have been screened for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), and more than 60,000 organs and 1 million tissues have been transplanted. We describe a case of transmission of HIV-1 by transplantation of organs and tissues procured between the time the donor(More)
BACKGROUND AND METHODS National surveillance data show recent, marked reductions in morbidity and mortality associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To evaluate these declines, we analyzed data on 1255 patients, each of whom had at least one CD4+ count below 100 cells per cubic millimeter, who were seen at nine clinics specializing in(More)