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Intelligence testing in children with intellectual disabilities (ID) has significant limitations. The normative samples of widely used intelligence tests, such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scales, rarely include an adequate number of subjects with ID needed to provide sensitive measurement in the very low ability range, and they are highly subject to floor(More)
Response inhibition is an important facet of executive function. Fragile X syndrome (FraX), with a known genetic etiology (fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1) mutation) and deficits in response inhibition, may be an ideal condition for elucidating interactions among gene-brain-behavior relationships. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies(More)
A meta-analysis of prevalence and cohort studies conducted over the last 30 years was carried out to identify risk markers for challenging behaviour shown by individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs). A total of 86 potential studies was identified from the review, with 22 (25.6%) containing sufficient data to enable a statistical analysis to be(More)
OBJECTIVE Many investigators now routinely classify children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) according to whether or not they also meet diagnostic criteria for autism. To determine whether this classification is appropriate, we examined the profiles of autistic behaviors shown by boys and girls with FXS. METHOD Individuals with FXS, aged 5 to 25 years, were(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine how neuroanatomic variation in children and adolescents with fragile X syndrome is linked to reduced levels of the fragile X mental retardation-1 protein and to aberrant cognition and behavior. METHODS This study included 84 children and adolescents with the fragile X full mutation and 72 typically developing control subjects(More)
Compulsive, self-injurious, and autistic behaviors were examined in 31 boys and 29 girls with fragile X syndrome aged 5 to 20 years. Self-injurious behavior occurred in 58% of boys and 17% of girls, whereas compulsive behavior occurred in 72% of boys and 55% of girls and did not appear to be associated with self-injurious behavior. Fifty percent of boys and(More)
Social escape behavior is a common behavioral feature of individuals with fragile X syndrome (fraX). In this observational study, we examined the effect of antecedent social and performance demands on problem behaviors in four conditions: face-to-face interview, silent reading, oral reading and a singing task. Results showed that problem behaviors were(More)
Fragile X syndrome (FraX) is the most common known cause of inherited mental impairment. FMR1 gene mutations, the cause of FraX, lead to reduced expression of FMR1 protein and an increased risk for a particular profile of cognitive, behavioral, and emotional dysfunction. The study of individuals with FraX provides a unique window of understanding into(More)
IMPORTANCE Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked neurogenetic disorder characterized by a cognitive and behavioral phenotype resembling features of autism spectrum disorder. Until now, research has focused largely on identifying regional differences in brain structure and function between individuals with FXS and various control groups. Very little is(More)