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Zucker rats are a useful model in which to define the mechanisms that link obesity to diabetes and associated cardiovascular disease. The present study tests the hypothesis that diabetic obese (compared with nondiabetic lean) Zucker rats are hypertensive and display a further increase in arterial pressure when fed a high salt diet. Male, nondiabetic lean(More)
High-NaCl diets elevate arterial pressure in NaCl-sensitive individuals, and increases in plasma sodium may trigger this effect. The present study tests the hypotheses that 1) plasma sodium displays a circadian rhythm in rats, 2) the plasma sodium rhythm is disturbed in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), and 3) excess dietary NaCl elevates plasma sodium(More)
In women, arterial pressure generally increases after menopause, but several studies suggest that women who eat large amounts of plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) experience a slower rise in the incidence of postmenopausal hypertension. This suggests that both ovarian hormones (principally estrogen) and phytoestrogens may protect at least some women from(More)
Research examining the control of arterial pressure in mice has primarily relied on tail-cuff plethysmography and, more recently, on tethered arterial catheters. In contrast, the radiotelemetry method has largely become the "gold standard" for long-term monitoring of arterial pressure and heart rate in rats. Whereas smaller telemetry probes have recently(More)
To regulate blood pressure, the brain controls circulating hormones, which influence the brain by binding to brain neurons that lie outside the blood-brain barrier. Recent work has demonstrated that "cardiovascular" hormones are synthesized and released in the brain as neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and can, in some cases, signal through the blood-brain(More)
The central nervous system plays an important role in the minute-to-minute regulation of arterial pressure, but its contribution to chronic regulation of arterial pressure is less clear. A nervous system role in essential hypertension in humans has been postulated for decades, but conclusive data on the relationship has been lacking. However, several lines(More)
Although experimental evidence supports peripheral osmoreceptor modulation of arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, a local osmotic signal required for osmoreceptor activation has yet to be identified using physiological sodium loads. Additionally, the central pathway involved in peripheral control of AVP has not been clearly established. Experiments were(More)
BACKGROUND The onset of menopause marks a pivotal time in which the incidence of hypertension and of cardiovascular disease (CVD) begins to increase dramatically in women. Before menopause, the incidences of these diseases are significantly lower in women than in age-matched men. After menopause, the rates of these diseases in women eventually approximate(More)
We have recently reported that an acute intragastric hypertonic saline load increases plasma arginine vasopressin (PAVP) and Fos immunoreactivity in several central nuclei, including the supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN), nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), area postrema (AP), and lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN). We hypothesized(More)
Plant derived products are consumed by a large percentage of the population to prevent, delay and ameliorate disease burden; however, relatively little is known about the efficacy, safety and underlying mechanisms of these traditional health products, especially when taken in concert with pharmaceutical agents. The flavonoids are a group of plant(More)