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The commensal fungus Candida albicans causes oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC; thrush) in settings of immunodeficiency. Although disseminated, vaginal, and oral candidiasis are all caused by C. albicans species, host defense against C. albicans varies by anatomical location. T helper 1 (Th1) cells have long been implicated in defense against candidiasis,(More)
Candida albicans is the most common cause of hematogenously disseminated and oropharyngeal candidiasis. Both of these diseases are characterized by fungal invasion of host cells. Previously, we have found that C. albicans hyphae invade endothelial cells and oral epithelial cells in vitro by inducing their own endocytosis. Therefore, we set out to identify(More)
The fungal pathogen Candida albicans is frequently associated with catheter-based infections because of its ability to form resilient biofilms. Prior studies have shown that the transcription factor Bcr1 governs biofilm formation in an in vitro catheter model. However, the mechanistic role of the Bcr1 pathway and its relationship to biofilm formation in(More)
BACKGROUND Biofilms are surface-associated microbial communities with significant environmental and medical impact. Here, we focus on an adherence mechanism that permits biofilm formation by Candida albicans, the major invasive fungal pathogen of humans. RESULTS The Als surface-protein family has been implicated in biofilm formation, and we show that Als1(More)
BACKGROUND Alternative therapies for Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis are needed. METHODS We randomly assigned 124 patients with S. aureus bacteremia with or without endocarditis to receive 6 mg of daptomycin intravenously per kilogram of body weight daily and 122 to receive initial low-dose gentamicin plus either an antistaphylococcal(More)
The ability to change from yeast to hyphal morphology is a major virulence determinant of Candida albicans. Mutants with defined defects in filamentation regulatory pathways have reduced virulence in mice. However, is it poorly understood why hyphal formation is critical for C. albicans to cause hematogenously disseminated infections. We used recently(More)
Vaccination with the recombinant N terminus of the candidal adhesin Als3p (rAls3p-N) protects mice from lethal candidemia. Candidal Als3p also is structurally similar to the microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecule adhesin, clumping factor, from Staphylococcus aureus. To determine the potential for cross-kingdom vaccination, we(More)
Escape from the intravascular compartment is likely a critical step in the development of hematogenously disseminated cryptococcal infections, such as meningitis. The capsule of Cryptococcus neoformans is considered to be a virulence factor because of its antiphagocytic properties. To further investigate the role of the capsule in escape from the(More)
Gene expression dynamics have provided foundational insight into almost all biological processes. Here, we analyze expression of environmentally responsive genes and transcription factor genes to infer signals and pathways that drive pathogen gene regulation during invasive Candida albicans infection of a mammalian host. Environmentally responsive gene(More)