Scott F. Gilbert

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A new and more robust evolutionary synthesis is emerging that attempts to explain macroevolution as well as microevolutionary events. This new synthesis emphasizes three morphological areas of biology that had been marginalized by the Modern Synthesis of genetics and evolution: embryology, macroevolution, and homology. The foundations for this new synthesis(More)
The production of phenotype is regulated by differential gene expression. However, the regulators of gene expression need not all reside within the embryo. Environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, diet, population density, or the presence of predators, can produce specific phenotypes, presumably by altering gene-expression patterns. The(More)
In the last two decades, the widespread application of genetic and genomic approaches has revealed a bacterial world astonishing in its ubiquity and diversity. This review examines how a growing knowledge of the vast range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of(More)
Organicism (materialistic holism) has provided the philosophical underpinnings for embryology since the time of Kant. It had influenced the founders of developmental mechanics, and the importance of organicism to embryology was explicitly recognized by such figures as O. Hertwig, H. Spemann, R. Harrison, A. M. Dalq, J. Needham, and C. H. Waddington. Many of(More)
The turtle shell is an evolutionary novelty that is synapomorphic for chelonians. The carapace is initiated by the entrapment of the ribs by the carapacial ridge (CR), a lateral bulge of the dorsal ectoderm and dermal mesoderm. The mechanisms by which the CR is initiated, the ribs entrapped and the dorsal dermis ossified, remains unknown. Similarly, the(More)
Evolutionary developmental biology is based on the principle that evolution arises from hereditable changes in development. Most of this new work has centred on changes in the regulatory components of the genome. However, recent studies (many of them documented in this volume) have shown that development also includes interactions between the organism and(More)
The environment can play a significant role in the production of phenotypes. However, the developmental mechanisms by which the environment can affect normal development are only now being elucidated. At least three paths have been found through which the environment can modify gene expression. The first is the neuroendocrine route, wherein the nervous(More)
A nutrient medium has been developed to enable the growth of normal epithelial cells while selectively inhibiting fibroblast proliferation. In this medium, D-valine is substituted for L-valine; and only those cells containing D-amino acid oxidase can convert the D-amino acid into its essential L-enantiomer. The ability to select for cells with this enzyme(More)
Epigenesis concerns the interactions through which the inherited potentials of the genome become actualized into an adult organism. In addition to epigenetic interactions occurring within the developing embryo, there are also critical epigenetic interactions occurring between the embryo and its environment. These interactions can determine the sex of the(More)
The Lancet has rightly drawn attention to the goals of reducing the burden of maternal and childhood undernutrition, focusing mainly on short-term outcomes such as infant survival and stunting. However, the longer term eff ects on adult health of a poor start to life suggest a further perspective. Developmental eff ects have been viewed traditionally in the(More)