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Until the advent of electronic tagging technology, the inherent difficulty of studying swift and powerful marine animals made ecological information about sharks of the family Lamnidae difficult to obtain. Here we report the tracking of movements of white sharks by using pop-up satellite archival tags, which reveal that their migratory movements, depth and(More)
Similar to rats, systemic pilocarpine injection causes status epilepticus (SE) and the eventual development of spontaneous seizures and mossy fiber sprouting in C57BL/6 and CD1 mice, but the physiological correlates of these events have not been identified in mice. Population responses in granule cells of the dentate gyrus were examined in transverse slices(More)
Hypocretin 2 (orexin B) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide thought to be involved in regulating energy homeostasis, autonomic function, arousal, and sensory processing. Neural circuits in the caudal nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) integrate viscerosensory inputs, and are therefore implicated in aspects of all these functions. We tested the hypothesis that(More)
The hypocretins (orexins) are hypothalamic neuropeptides implicated in feeding, arousal, and autonomic regulation. These studies were designed to determine the actions of hypocretin peptides on synaptic transmission in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from DMV neurons in transverse slices of rat(More)
Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) cone horizontal cells contain N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the function of which has yet to be determined. In the present study, we have examined the effect of NMDA receptor activation on voltage-gated ion channel activity. NMDA receptor activation produced a long-term downregulation of voltage-gated sodium and(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV) constitute sensory and motor nuclei of the dorsal vagal complex, respectively. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from DMV neurons in rat brain slices and three methods of stimulation (electrical, glutamate microdrop, glutamate photostimulation) to test the(More)
The mirror chamber (MC) is a putative test of anxiety-like behavior in mice, and is increasingly popular. Nonetheless, it is unclear whether the observed behaviors rely on the presence of mirrored panels. If so, it is unclear whether the behaviors are sensitive to clinically effective anxiolytics, and how the test compares to the elevated plus maze (EPM) in(More)
In this study, we investigated the mechanism that links activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors to inhibition of voltage-gated sodium channels in isolated catfish cone horizontal cells. NMDA channels were activated in voltage-clamped cells incubated in low-calcium saline or dialyzed with the calcium chelator BAPTA to determine that calcium(More)
For animals inhabiting multiple environments, the ability to select appropriate behaviors is crucial as their adaptability is often context dependent. Caenorhabditis elegans uses distinct gaits to move on land and in water. Gait transitions can potentially coordinate behaviors associated with distinct environments. We investigated whether land and water(More)
BACKGROUND Transcranial motor evoked potentials are used to detect iatrogenic injury to the corticospinal tracts and vascular territory of the anterior spinal artery. Tongue and lip lacerations are the most common complication of this modality. Theoretical complications include cardiac arrhythmia and seizure although there are no published reports of(More)