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The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, the molecules that induce IL-12 production by macrophages and the mechanisms by which they do so remain undefined. Here it is shown that microbial lipoproteins are(More)
The advent of biological therapy has revolutionized inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) care. Nonetheless, not all patients require biological therapy. Selection of patients depends on clinical characteristics, previous response to other medical therapy, and comorbid conditions. Availability, reimbursement guidelines, and patient preferences guide the choice(More)
IL-10 is an antiinflammatory cytokine secreted by activated macrophages and Th2 cells. IL-10 secretion promotes the down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokine synthesis and the development of Th2 responses. In macrophages, proinflammatory cytokines appear to be induced by similar mechanisms, but the IL-10 induction mechanisms have not been examined. We(More)
Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a heterodimeric cytokine whose activity is critical for T-helper 1 responses. The gene for the IL-12 p40 subunit is expressed in macrophages following induction by bacterial products, and its expression is augmented by gamma interferon. In this study, we performed a functional analysis of the murine and human p40 promoters in the(More)
Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all(More)
Interleukin (IL)-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine that is critical for the development of a T-helper-1 immune response and immunity against intracellular pathogens. The IL-12 p40 gene product, expressed specifically in macrophages and dendritic cells, heterodimerizes with p35 to form bioactive IL-12, and heterodimerizes with p19 to comprise the cytokine(More)
Regulation of innate inflammatory responses against the enteric microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Key participants in innate defenses are macrophages. In these studies, the basic leucine zipper protein, NFIL3, is identified as a regulatory transcription factor in macrophages, controlling IL-12 p40 production induced by(More)
BACKGROUND Previously, it was shown that the chloride channel ClC-2 modulates intestinal tight junction (TJ) barrier function. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ClC-2 in epithelial barrier function and recovery in the event of epithelial injury. METHODS The role of ClC-2 was investigated in TJ barrier function in dextran sodium(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence and management of infusion reactions to infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets human tumor necrosis factor-alpha, in patients with Crohn's disease treated at a large infusion center. METHODS A total of 165 consecutive patients who received 479 infliximab infusions in the Division of Clinical Immunology(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Crohn's disease commonly recurs after intestinal resection. We evaluated whether the administration of infliximab after resective intestinal surgery for Crohn's disease reduces postoperative recurrence. METHODS We randomly assigned 24 patients with Crohn's disease who had undergone ileocolonic resection to receive intravenous infliximab(More)