Scott E Williams

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In animals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons either cross or avoid the midline at the optic chiasm. Here, we show that ephrin-Bs in the chiasm region direct the divergence of retinal axons through the selective repulsion of a subset of RGCs that express EphB1. Ephrin-B2 is expressed at the mouse chiasm midline as the ipsilateral(More)
The ventral midline of the nervous system is an important choice point at which growing axons decide whether to cross and project contralaterally or remain on the same side of the brain. In Drosophila, the decision to cross or avoid the CNS midline is controlled, at least in part, by the Roundabout (Robo) receptor on the axons and its ligand, Slit, an(More)
Stem and progenitor cells use asymmetric cell divisions to balance proliferation and differentiation. Evidence from invertebrates shows that this process is regulated by proteins asymmetrically distributed at the cell cortex during mitosis: Par3-Par6-aPKC, which confer polarity, and Gα(i)-LGN/AGS3-NuMA-dynein/dynactin, which govern spindle positioning. Here(More)
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons diverge within the optic chiasm to project to opposite sides of the brain. In mouse, contralateral RGCs are distributed throughout the retina, whereas ipsilateral RGCs are restricted to the ventrotemporal crescent (VTC). While repulsive guidance mechanisms play a major role in the formation of the ipsilateral projection,(More)
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), a serine protease that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the fibrinolytic cascade, is cleared rapidly in vivo by the liver. Using chemical crosslinking, we have recently identified a plasminogen-activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1)-independent t-PA clearance receptor on rat hepatoma MH1C1 cells with a(More)
In animals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from each eye sort in the developing ventral diencephalon to project to ipsi- or contralateral targets, thereby forming the optic chiasm. Ipsilaterally projecting axons arise from the ventrotemporal (VT) retina and contralaterally projecting axons primarily from the other retinal quadrants.(More)
During development, a polarized epidermal sheet undergoes stratification and differentiation to produce the skin barrier. Through mechanisms that are poorly understood, the process involves actin dynamics, spindle reorientation and Notch signalling. To elucidate how epidermal embryogenesis is governed, we conditionally targeted serum response factor (Srf),(More)
The alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) receptor complex as purified by affinity chromatography contains three polypeptides: a 515-kDa heavy chain, an 85-kDa light chain, and a 39-kDa associated protein. Previous studies have established that the 515/85-kDa components are derived from a 600-kDa precursor whose complete sequence has been determined by cDNA(More)
Ciliogenesis precedes lineage-determining signaling in skin development. To understand why, we performed shRNA-mediated knockdown of seven intraflagellar transport proteins (IFTs) and conditional ablation of Ift-88 and Kif3a during embryogenesis. In both cultured keratinocytes and embryonic epidermis, all of these eliminated cilia, and many (not Kif3a)(More)
Ten peptides, derived from human alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) receptor by chemical or proteolytic digestion, were sequenced. Comparative analysis revealed that all of the resulting sequences were present within the cDNA-deduced structure of low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) (Herz, J., Hamann, U., Rogne, S., Myklebost, O., Gausepohl,(More)