Scott E Vancompernolle

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Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin(More)
Deciphering the signaling pathways that govern stimulation of naïve CD4+ T helper cells by antigen-presenting cells via formation of the immunological synapse is key to a fundamental understanding of the progression of successful adaptive immune response. The study of T cell-APC interactions in vitro is challenging, however, due to the difficulty of(More)
Helicobacter pylori are Gram-negative bacteria that persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa despite the recruitment of immune cells. The H. pylori vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) recently has been shown to inhibit stimulation-induced proliferation of primary human CD4(+) T cells. In this study, we investigated effects of VacA on the proliferation of(More)
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causal agent of chronic liver infection, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma infecting more than 170 million people. CD81 is a receptor for HCV envelope glycoprotein E2. Although the binding of HCV-E2 with CD81 is well documented the role of this interaction in the viral life cycle remains unclear. Host specificity and(More)
The migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes from the blood to sites of infection in tissues is a hallmark of the innate immune response. Formylated peptides produced as a byproduct of bacterial protein synthesis are powerful chemoattractants for leukocytes. Formyl peptides bind to two different G protein-coupled receptors (formyl peptide receptor (FPR)(More)
CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major HIV-1 coreceptor and its expression levels are a critical determinant of HIV-1 infection. However, the molecular mechanisms of CCR5 regulation in primary targets of HIV-1 remain unknown. Despite binding to conserved DNA elements, we show that the transcription factors GATA binding protein 1 (GATA-1) and GATA-3(More)
Ligands of CCR5, the major coreceptor of HIV-1, costimulate T lymphocyte activation. However, the full impact of CCR5 expression on T cell responses remains unknown. Here, we show that compared with CCR5(+/+), T cells from CCR5(-/-) mice secrete lower amounts of IL-2, and a similar phenotype is observed in humans who lack CCR5 expression(More)
CD81 is expressed on human T cells at all stages of development. CD81 is physically associated with CD4 and CD8 and antibodies against CD81 generate signals which influence thymocyte adhesion and proliferation. Here we evaluate the function of CD81 on mature T cells. We employ a system in which B cells present superantigen to autologous T cells and find(More)
The role of epitope-specific TCR repertoire diversity in the control of HIV-1 viremia is unknown. Further analysis at the clonotype level is important for understanding the structural aspects of the HIV-1 specific repertoire that directly relate to CTL function and ability to suppress viral replication. In this study, we performed in-depth analysis of T(More)
Surface levels of CCR5 on memory CD4(+) T cells influence HIV-1/AIDS susceptibility. Alternative promoter usage results in the generation of CCR5 mRNA isoforms that differ based on whether they contain or lack the untranslated exon 1. The impact of exon 1-containing transcripts on CCR5 surface expression is unknown. In this study, we show that the increased(More)