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The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, the molecules that induce IL-12 production by macrophages and the mechanisms by which they do so remain undefined. Here it is shown that microbial lipoproteins are(More)
Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all(More)
Neurotrophins jointly exert various functions in the nervous system, including neuronal differentiation, survival, and regulation of synaptic plasticity. However, the functional interactions of neurotrophins or mechanisms through which neurotrophins regulate each other are still not clear. In the present study, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA(More)
Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) plays a critical role in the development and function of immune and non-immune cells. Although NFAT is a central transcriptional regulator of T cell cytokines, its role in macrophage specific gene expression is less defined. Previous work from our group demonstrated that NFAT regulates Il12b gene expression in(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of(More)
Plexins are a family of genes (A,B,C, and D) that are expressed in many organ systems. Plexins expressed in the immune system have been implicated in cell movement and cell-cell interaction during the course of an immune response. In this study, the expression pattern of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 in dendritic cells (DCs), which are central in immune(More)
Peptide and protein drugs have become the new generation of therapeutics, yet most of them are only available as injections, and reports on oral local intestinal delivery of peptides and proteins are quite limited. The aim of this work was to develop and evaluate a water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsion system in vitro and in vivo for local intestinal delivery of(More)
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