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The generation of cell-mediated immunity against many infectious pathogens involves the production of interleukin-12 (IL-12), a key signal of the innate immune system. Yet, for many pathogens, the molecules that induce IL-12 production by macrophages and the mechanisms by which they do so remain undefined. Here it is shown that microbial lipoproteins are(More)
Host defense against opportunistic fungi requires coordination between innate and adaptive immunity for resolution of infection. Antibodies generated in mice vaccinated with the fungus Pneumocystis prevent growth of Pneumocystis organisms within the lungs, but the mechanisms whereby antibodies enhance antifungal host defense are poorly defined. Nearly all(More)
Regulation of innate inflammatory responses against the enteric microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Key participants in innate defenses are macrophages. In these studies, the basic leucine zipper protein, NFIL3, is identified as a regulatory transcription factor in macrophages, controlling IL-12 p40 production induced by(More)
Normal responses to metyrapone were observed in most steady-state methadone maintained treatment patients. These preliminary studies suggest that in recently detoxified methadone maintained treatment patients, there may be an exaggerated response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to metyrapone.
Neurotrophins jointly exert various functions in the nervous system, including neuronal differentiation, survival, and regulation of synaptic plasticity. However, the functional interactions of neurotrophins or mechanisms through which neurotrophins regulate each other are still not clear. In the present study, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA(More)
Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) plays a critical role in the development and function of immune and non-immune cells. Although NFAT is a central transcriptional regulator of T cell cytokines, its role in macrophage specific gene expression is less defined. Previous work from our group demonstrated that NFAT regulates Il12b gene expression in(More)
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and its metabolic product carbon monoxide (CO) play regulatory roles in acute inflammatory states. In this study, we demonstrate that CO administration is effective as a therapeutic modality in mice with established chronic colitis. CO administration ameliorates chronic intestinal inflammation in a T helper (Th)1-mediated model of(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Crohn's disease commonly recurs after intestinal resection. We evaluated whether the administration of infliximab after resective intestinal surgery for Crohn's disease reduces postoperative recurrence. METHODS We randomly assigned 24 patients with Crohn's disease who had undergone ileocolonic resection to receive intravenous infliximab(More)
The spleen regulatory B cell subset with the functional capacity to express IL-10 (B10 cells) modulates both immune responses and autoimmune disease severity. However, the peritoneal cavity also contains relatively high frequencies of functionally defined IL-10-competent B10 cells. In this study, peritoneal cavity B10 cells shared similar cell surface(More)
Plexins are a family of genes (A,B,C, and D) that are expressed in many organ systems. Plexins expressed in the immune system have been implicated in cell movement and cell-cell interaction during the course of an immune response. In this study, the expression pattern of Plexin-B2 and Plexin-D1 in dendritic cells (DCs), which are central in immune(More)