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Prenatal ethanol exposure is the leading preventable cause of congenital mental disability. Whereas a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) requires identification of a specific pattern of craniofacial dysmorphology, most individuals with behavioral and neurological sequelae of heavy prenatal ethanol exposure do not exhibit these defining facial(More)
Animal model-based studies have shown that ethanol exposure during early gestation induces developmental stage-specific abnormalities of the face and brain. The exposure time-dependent variability in ethanol's teratogenic outcomes is expected to contribute significantly to the wide spectrum of effects observed in humans with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder(More)
Nicotine affects functions of the central nervous system. A previous study showed that developing cerebellar Purkinje cells are targets for early postnatal nicotine exposure. In this study, we assessed the effects of long-term nicotine exposure on mature cerebellar Purkinje cells. This is particularly relevant since the majority of smokers are exposed to(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, such as magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), have recently been applied to the study of both normal and abnormal structure and neurochemistry in small animals. Herein, findings from studies in which these methods have been used for the(More)
The present study examined the effects of coexposure of alcohol and nicotine during the brain growth spurt period on brain weights and cerebellar Purkinje cell numbers. Sprague-Dawley rat pups were randomly assigned into five groups (four artificially reared groups and one suckle control). Artificially reared pups were given alcohol (0 or 4 g/kg/day) and/or(More)
Previous research from our laboratory has shown that [ethanol (EtOH)] exposure during the brain growth spurt is detrimental to olfactory bulb development. This study extends those findings by examining the effects of EtOH, nicotine (NIC), and the combination of these drugs (EtOH/NIC) on olfactory bulb mitral cell numbers, as well as on various major(More)
Ethanol exposure on gestational day (GD) 7 in the mouse has previously been shown to result in ventromedian forebrain deficits along with facial anomalies characteristic of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). To further explore ethanol's teratogenic effect on the ventromedian forebrain in this mouse model, scanning electron microscopic and histological analyses(More)
One of the distinguishing features of prenatal alcohol exposure is impaired cognitive and behavioral function resulting from damage to the central nervous system. Information available from the small number of autopsied cases in humans indicates that the offspring of mothers who abused alcohol during pregnancy have various neuroanatomical alterations(More)
The range of defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) includes persistent behavioral problems, with anxiety and depression being two of the more commonly reported issues. Previous studies of rodent FASD models suggest that interference with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis structure and/or function may be the basis for some(More)
The imaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) provide valuable tools for studying brain structure and neurochemistry in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although the application of magnetic resonance-based methodologies to the study of FASD in animal models is in(More)