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BACKGROUND This magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM)-based report is the second in a series designed to illustrate the spectrum of craniofacial and central nervous system (CNS) dysmorphia resulting from single- and multiple-day maternal ethanol treatment. The study described in this report examined the consequences of ethanol exposure on gestational day (GD)(More)
BACKGROUND Magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at microscopic levels, provides unprecedented opportunities to aid in defining the full spectrum of ethanol's insult to the developing brain. This is the first in a series of reports that, collectively, will provide an MRM-based atlas of developmental stage-dependent structural(More)
BACKGROUND The mechanisms by which maternal ethanol abuse during pregnancy causes neurodevelopmental injury in the fetus are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to use a chronically instrumented fetal sheep model system to determine if a binge pattern of ethanol exposure administered throughout the third trimester reduced fetal arterial(More)
BACKGROUND In spite of the fact that drinking and smoking often occur together, little is known about the pharmacokinetic interaction between alcohol and nicotine. Previous research in neonatal rats demonstrated that nicotine reduces blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) if alcohol and nicotine are administered simultaneously. However, it is unclear whether(More)
BACKGROUND The application of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) to the study of normal and abnormal prenatal mouse development has facilitated discovery of dysmorphology following prenatal ethanol insult. The current analyses extend this work, providing a regional brain volume-based description of normal brain growth and illustrating the consequences of(More)
Prenatal ethanol exposure is the leading preventable cause of congenital mental disability. Whereas a diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) requires identification of a specific pattern of craniofacial dysmorphology, most individuals with behavioral and neurological sequelae of heavy prenatal ethanol exposure do not exhibit these defining facial(More)
BACKGROUND Although the mechanisms that underlie fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss have not been determined, hypoxia/hypoxemia has been considered a leading candidate. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that neuronal loss could occur in the developing brain in the absence of fetal hypoxemia. METHODS Three groups of pregnant sheep were used:(More)
BACKGROUND The first trimester of human development and the equivalent developmental period in animal models is a time when teratogenic ethanol (EtOH) exposure induces the major structural birth defects that fall within fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Previous FASD research employing an acute high dose maternal intraperitoneal EtOH treatment(More)
Animal model-based studies have shown that ethanol exposure during early gestation induces developmental stage-specific abnormalities of the face and brain. The exposure time-dependent variability in ethanol's teratogenic outcomes is expected to contribute significantly to the wide spectrum of effects observed in humans with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder(More)
Nicotine affects functions of the central nervous system. A previous study showed that developing cerebellar Purkinje cells are targets for early postnatal nicotine exposure. In this study, we assessed the effects of long-term nicotine exposure on mature cerebellar Purkinje cells. This is particularly relevant since the majority of smokers are exposed to(More)