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The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method used for the prospective identification in mice of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization. We report here the results of the second and final phase of an international trial in which the performance of the assay has been evaluated using seven test materials in five independent(More)
Sodium perfluorohexanoate [NaPFHx, F(CF(2))(5)CO(2)Na, CAS#2923-26-4] was evaluated in acute, 90-day subchronic, one-generation reproduction, developmental and in vitro genetic toxicity studies. In the subchronic/one-generation reproduction study, four groups of young adult male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were administered NaPFHx daily for approximately 90(More)
Various chemicals and proteins of industrial importance are known to cause respiratory allergy, with occupational asthma being the most important manifestation of the disease. This paper describes clinical syndromes, mechanisms associated with occupational respiratory hypersensitivity, and methods available currently for the prospective identification of(More)
Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of linear/branched ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) with that of linear and branched APFO. Linear/branched APFO (approximately 80% linear and 20% branched isomers) was formerly used in the production of commercial products. The extensive toxicologic database for APFO has been developed essentially(More)
Macrophages were isolated from a series of transplanted mouse mammary tumors, originally derived from a single spontaneously arising tumor, to determine whether macrophage content or function correlated with any of a wide range of tumor properties. None of the tumor cell lines differed significantly in susceptibility to killing by MVE-2-activated peritoneal(More)
Repeated high doses of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) have been reported to affect immune system function in mice. To examine dose-response characteristics in both rats and mice, male CD rats and CD-1 mice were dosed by oral gavage with 0.3-30 mg/kg/day of linear APFO for 29 days. Anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) IgM levels, clinical signs, body(More)
Exposure to chemicals in domestic and occupational settings may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Airway hypersensitivity (AHS) is T helper-2 (Th2) cell associated, whereas contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is T helper-1 (Th1) cell associated. The distinct cytokine profiles produced by these cells may provide a means of distinguishing respiratory(More)
The absorption, tissue distribution, elimination, and metabolism of [1-¹⁴C]-PFHx in rats and mice dosed orally at 2 or 100 mg/kg was evaluated following a single dose or after 14 consecutive doses. Absorption was rapid in rats as evidenced by a short time to maximum concentration (C(max)) of 30 min in male rats and 15 min in female rats at both the 2 and(More)
There is a concern that certain industrial chemicals found in the environment may mimic or antagonize endogenous hormones and adversely affect the endocrine as well as the immune system. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure of Crl:CD (SD)BR male rats to 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E2), an estrogen receptor agonist, or flutamide (FLUT), an(More)