Scott E Loveless

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The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method used for the prospective identification in mice of chemicals that have the potential to cause skin sensitization. We report here the results of the second and final phase of an international trial in which the performance of the assay has been evaluated using seven test materials in five independent(More)
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription(More)
The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of linear/branched ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) with that of linear and branched APFO. Linear/branched APFO (approximately 80% linear and 20% branched isomers) was formerly used in the production of commercial products. The extensive toxicologic database for APFO has been developed essentially(More)
Various chemicals and proteins of industrial importance are known to cause respiratory allergy, with occupational asthma being the most important manifestation of the disease. This paper describes clinical syndromes, mechanisms associated with occupational respiratory hypersensitivity, and methods available currently for the prospective identification of(More)
The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a method for the predictive identification of chemicals that have a potential to cause skin sensitization. Activity is measured as a function of lymph node cell (LNC) proliferative responses stimulated by topical application of test chemicals. Those chemicals that induce a threefold or greater increase in LNC(More)
Repeated high doses of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) have been reported to affect immune system function in mice. To examine dose-response characteristics in both rats and mice, male CD rats and CD-1 mice were dosed by oral gavage with 0.3-30 mg/kg/day of linear APFO for 29 days. Anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) IgM levels, clinical signs, body(More)
The murine local lymph node assay is a predictive test for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals. The method has been the subject both of national inter-laboratory studies and of extensive comparisons with guinea pig tests. In the investigations reported here, the local lymph node assay has been evaluated further in the context of an(More)
Hundreds of chemicals are contact allergens but there remains a need to identify and characterise accurately skin sensitising hazards. The purpose of this review was fourfold. First, when using the local lymph node assay (LLNA), consider whether an exposure concentration (EC3 value) lower than 100% can be defined and used as a threshold criterion for(More)
Exposure to chemicals in domestic and occupational settings may contribute to increases in asthma and allergy. Airway hypersensitivity (AHS) is T helper-2 (Th2) cell associated, whereas contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is T helper-1 (Th1) cell associated. The distinct cytokine profiles produced by these cells may provide a means of distinguishing respiratory(More)
The prospective identification of skin sensitizing chemicals is a vital prerequisite for their proper risk management. Traditionally this has been achieved largely by the conduct of guinea pig assays such as the maximization and Buehler tests. These methods are recommended by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and are required(More)