Scott E. Klewer

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We identified hyaluronan synthase-2 (Has2) as a likely source of hyaluronan (HA) during embryonic development, and we used gene targeting to study its function in vivo. Has2(-/-) embryos lack HA, exhibit severe cardiac and vascular abnormalities, and die during midgestation (E9.5-10). Heart explants from Has2(-/-) embryos lack the characteristic(More)
The valves of the heart develop in the embryo from precursor structures called endocardial cushions. After cardiac looping, endocardial cushion swellings form and become populated by valve precursor cells formed by an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Endocardial cushions subsequently undergo directed growth and remodeling to form the valvular(More)
The formation of endocardial cushions in the atrioventricular (AV) canal of the rudimentary heart requires epithelial-to-mesenchymal cell transformation (EMT). This is a complex developmental process regulated by multiple extracellular signals and transduction pathways. A collagen gel assay, long used to examine endocardial cushion development in avian(More)
Heart septation and valve malformations constitute the most common anatomical birth defects. These structures arise from the endocardial cushions within the atrioventricular canal (AVC) through dynamic interactions between cushion cells and the extracellular matrix (termed cardiac jelly). Transformation of endothelial cells to mesenchymal cells is essential(More)
The mouse p locus encodes a gene that functions in normal pigmentation. We have characterized a radiation-induced mutant allele of the mouse p locus that is associated with a failure-to-thrive syndrome, in addition to diminished pigmentation. Mice homozygous for this mutant allele, p(100H), show delayed growth and die within 2 wk after birth. We have(More)
Endothelial cells in the atrioventricular canal of the heart undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to form heart valves. We surveyed an on-line database (http://www.geisha.arizona.edu/) for clones expressed during gastrulation to identify novel EMT components. One gene, latrophilin-2, was identified as expressed in the heart and appeared to be(More)
Doxorubicin is an effective anticancer chemotherapeutic agent known to cause acute and chronic cardiomyopathy. To develop a more sensitive echocardiographic screening test for cardiac damage due to doxorubicin, a cohort study was performed using dobutamine infusion to differentiate asymptomatic long-term survivors of childhood cancer treated with(More)
During development, the embryonic atrioventricular (AV) endocardial cushions undergo a morphogenic process to form mature valve leaflets and the membranous septa in the heart. Several extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are expressed in the developing AV endocardial cushions, but it remains to be established if any specific ECM proteins are necessary for(More)
Normal development of the cardiac atrioventricular (AV) endocardial cushions is essential for proper ventricular septation and morphogenesis of the mature mitral and tricuspid valves. In this study, we demonstrate spatially restricted expression of both Wnt-9a (formerly Wnt-14) and the secreted Wnt antagonist Frzb in AV endocardial cushions of the(More)
Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data on adrenergic agents in children have revealed wide ranges of plasma clearance rates and hemodynamic responses in patients with critical illnesses or myocardial dysfunction. In order to more clearly elucidate the underlying pharmacologic processes, graded i.v. dobutamine infusions of 0.5, 2.5 and 5.0(More)