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Most models of neural response to electrical stimulation, such as the Hodgkin-Huxley equations, are deterministic, despite significant physiological evidence for the existence of stochastic activity. For instance, the range of discharge probabilities measured in response to single electrical pulses cannot be explained at all by deterministic models.(More)
The single-pulse model of the companion paper [1] is extended to describe responses to pulse trains by introducing a phenomenological refractory mechanism. Comparisons with physiological data from cat auditory nerve fibers are made for pulse rates between 100 and 800 pulses/s. First, it is shown that both the shape and slope of mean discharge rate curves(More)
The activity of auditory-nerve fibers was recorded in anesthetized cats in response to sinusoidal electric stimuli applied through a bipolar electrode pair inserted about 5 mm into the cochlea through the round window. The synchronization index was calculated from period histograms for frequencies ranging from 0.2 to over 10 kHz. The stimulus artifact was(More)
Inadvertent disclosure of sensitive business information represents one the largest classes of recent security breaches. We examine a specific instance of this problem – inadvertent disclosures through peer-to-peer file sharing networks. We characterize the extent of the security problem for a group of large financial institutions using a direct analysis of(More)
IT security issues and outsourcing of business processes are common but largely disjoint themes in the literature; common consideration is rare even though information security risk becomes a shared risk both through IS-based processes at outsourcing partners and potentially tightly-integrated IS systems. This paper explores this lack of an integrated model(More)
Protecting national critical infrastructure assets from cyber incidents is an important challenge. One facet of this challenge is that the vast majority of the owners and operators of critical infrastructure components are public or private companies. This paper examines the threats faced by for-profit critical infrastructure entities, the incentives and(More)
What are the main drivers of private-section investment in information security? How exposed are firms to cyber risks arising from their reliance on the information infrastructure? Initial results are presented from a field study of a manufacturing company and four of its suppliers of different sizes. We find that many managers believe: that information(More)
The U.S. economy increasingly relies on the internet as a critical infrastructure for enabling business processes from product design, engineering and supply chain management upstream through sale and fulfillment of product downstream. As a result, there is much interest in the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to targeted and large-scale disruptions of the(More)
Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly affects how resilient a firm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of field studies related to information risk(More)
Today most companies are closely knit together with and thus dependent on suppliers, allies, customers, and public authorities. Member companies in such an extended enterprise or “business network” are either forced or volunteer to meet certain security objectives as a whole. As a consequence, the business network needs to agree on a common strategy, joint(More)