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In their seminal publication describing the structure of the DNA double helix, Watson and Crick wrote what may be one of the greatest understatements in the scientific literature, namely that "It has not escaped our notice that the specific pairing we have postulated immediately suggests a possible copying mechanism for the genetic material." Half a century(More)
Human DNA polymerase eta (Pol eta) modulates susceptibility to skin cancer by promoting DNA synthesis past sunlight-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers that escape nucleotide excision repair (NER). Here we have determined the efficiency and fidelity of dimer bypass. We show that Pol eta copies thymine dimers and the flanking bases with higher processivity(More)
2-Hydroxyadenine (2-OH-A), a product of DNA oxidation, is a potential source of mutations. We investigated how representative DNA polymerases from the A, B and Y families dealt with 2-OH-A in primer extension experiments. A template 2-OH-A reduced the rate of incorporation by DNA polymerase alpha (Pol alpha) and Klenow fragment (Kf(exo-)). Two Y family DNA(More)
One of the most common DNA lesions arising in cells is an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) site resulting from base loss. Although a template strand AP site impedes DNA synthesis, translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerases can bypass an AP site. Because this bypass is expected to be highly mutagenic because of loss of base coding potential, here we quantify the(More)
When cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers stall DNA replication by DNA polymerase (Pol) delta or epsilon, a switch occurs to allow translesion synthesis by DNA polymerase eta, followed by another switch that allows normal replication to resume. In the present study, we investigate these switches using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pol delta, Pol epsilon and Pol eta and(More)
DNA polymerase η (pol η) synthesizes past cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer and possibly 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesions during DNA replication. Loss of pol η is associated with an increase in mutation rate, demonstrating its indispensable role in mutation suppression. It has been recently reported that β-strand 12 (amino acids 316-324) of the little(More)
A DNA lesion created by oxidative stress is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-guanine (8-oxoG). Because 8-oxoG can mispair with adenine during DNA synthesis, it is of interest to understand the efficiency and fidelity of 8-oxoG bypass by DNA polymerases. We quantify bypass parameters for two DNA polymerases implicated in 8-oxoG bypass, Pols delta and eta. Yeast Pol delta(More)
The yeast REV3 gene encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase zeta (pol zeta), a B family polymerase that performs mutagenic DNA synthesis in cells. To probe pol zeta mutagenic functions, we generated six mutator alleles of REV3 with amino acid replacements for Leu979, a highly conserved residue inferred to be at the pol zeta active site. Replacing(More)
The major eukaryotic mismatch repair (MMR) pathway requires Msh2-Msh6, which, like Escherichia coli MutS, binds to and participates in repair of the two most common replication errors, single base-base and single base insertion-deletion mismatches. For both types of mismatches, the side chain of E. coli Glu38 in a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif interacts with a(More)
Xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients with mutations in the DNA polymerase eta (pol eta) gene are hypersensitive to sunlight and have greatly increased susceptibility to sunlight-induced skin cancer. Consistent with the ability of Pol eta to efficiently bypass UV light-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, XPV cells lacking Pol eta have diminished(More)