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Adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) are nucleotide analogs that inhibit the replication of wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) and lamivudine (3TC)-resistant virus in HBV-infected patients, including those who are coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. The combination of ADV or TDF with other nucleoside analogs is a(More)
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide analogue approved for treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. TDF also has been shown in vitro to inhibit replication of wild-type hepatitis B virus (HBV) and lamivudine-resistant HBV mutants and to inhibit lamivudine-resistant HBV in patients and HBV in patients coinfected with the HIV.(More)
The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin acts within the central nervous system to decrease food intake and body weight and to increase renal and thermogenic brown adipose tissue sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Previous studies have focused on hypothalamic brain regions, although recent findings have identified leptin receptors (ObR) in a distributed brain(More)
RATIONALE Myocardial infarction (MI)-induced heart failure is characterized by central nervous system-driven sympathoexcitation and deteriorating cardiac function. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus is a key regulator of sympathetic nerve activity and is implicated in heart failure. Redox signaling in the PVN and other central nervous(More)
In the central nervous system, angiotensin II (AngII) binds to angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT(1)Rs) to affect autonomic and endocrine functions as well as learning and memory. However, understanding the function of cells containing AT(1)Rs has been restricted by limited availability of specific antisera, difficulties discriminating AT(1)R-immunoreactive(More)
Hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) is associated with glutamate-dependent dysregulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Many forms of glutamate-dependent plasticity are mediated by NMDA receptor GluN1 subunit expression and the distribution of functional receptor to the plasma membrane of dendrites. Here, we use a combined(More)
A vector based on Semliki Forest virus (SFV) expressing high levels of interleukin-12 (SFV-enhIL-12) has previously demonstrated potent antitumoral efficacy in small rodents with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by transplantation of tumor cells. In the present study, the infectivity and antitumoral/antiviral effects of SFV vectors were evaluated in(More)
UNLABELLED Resolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by coordinated humoral and cellular immune responses. Immunity is durable over decades, protecting the host from reinfection and potential activation of residual HBV. Woodchucks infected at birth with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) cleared viremia and developed antibodies to(More)
An imbalance in circulating proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is postulated to play a causal role in preeclampsia (PE). We have described an inbred mouse strain, BPH/5, which spontaneously develops a PE-like syndrome including late-gestational hypertension, proteinuria, and poor feto-placental outcomes. Here we tested the hypothesis that an(More)
Renovascular hypertension in mice is characterized by an elevation in hypothalamic angiotensin II levels. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major cardioregulatory site implicated in the neurogenic component of renovascular hypertension. Increased superoxide (O(2)(-·)) production in the PVN is involved in angiotensin II-dependent neurocardiovascular(More)