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Comparative analysis of predicted protein sequences encoded by the genomes of Caenorhabditis elegans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggests that most of the core biological functions are carried out by orthologous proteins (proteins of different species that can be traced back to a common ancestor) that occur in comparable numbers. The specialized processes(More)
We have investigated mRNA 3'-end-processing signals in each of six eukaryotic species (yeast, rice, arabidopsis, fruitfly, mouse, and human) through the analysis of more than 20,000 3'-expressed sequence tags. The use and conservation of the canonical AAUAAA element vary widely among the six species and are especially weak in plants and yeast. Even in the(More)
Protein kinase CK2 is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase involved in many biological processes. It is overexpressed in many malignancies including rodent and human breast cancer, and is up-regulated in Wnt-transfected mammary epithelial cells, where it can be found in a complex with dishevelled and beta-catenin. beta-Catenin is a substrate for CK2 and(More)
Phthalate esters are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that interact with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of nuclear receptors. Molecular docking and free energy calculations were performed in an effort to identify novel phthalate ligands of PPARgamma, a subtype expressed in a wide range of human tissues. The method was(More)
To investigate Saccharomyces cerevisiae 3'-end-processing signals, a set of 1352 unique pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing sites, corresponding to 861 different genes, was identified by alignment of expressed sequence tag sequences with the complete yeast genome. Nucleotide word frequencies in the vicinity of the cleavage sites were analyzed to reveal the signal(More)
Streptavidin, a homotetrameric protein with extremely tight biotin binding (K(d) < or = 10(-14) M), has been widely used as an affinity reagent. Its utility would be increased by engineering single-chain mutants with a wide spectrum of affinities, more suitable for phage-display and chip technologies. By a circular permutation procedure, we converted(More)
We have modeled the ligand-binding domain (LBD) of the human estrogen receptor protein (hER) by homology to the known crystal structure of the LBD of the alpha isoform of human retinoate-X receptor (hRX). Alignment of hER with members of the nuclear receptor superfamily defined probable secondary structures which we used to constrain backbone torsion angles(More)
We have engineered a soluble, stable two-chain dimeric streptavidin (TCD) in Escherchia coli. Examination of the three-dimensional structure of streptavidin aided by empirical binding free-energy calculations helped us to select mutations at subunit interfaces that dissociate the native tetramer and stabilize the desired dimer. We chose positions W120,(More)
Small acid-soluble spore proteins (SASPs) appear 3-4 hr after the onset of sporulation in Gram-positive bacteria and constitute up to 20% of the protein of mature spores. Previous studies using Bacillus subtilis deletion mutants lacking SASP-alpha and -beta have shown that such mutations abolish the elevated resistance of spores to UV radiation. Analyses(More)
A conjugate of a C(11)-beta-derivative of estradiol and an asymmetric tetraphenylporphyrin was synthesized to study its potential selective uptake by breast cancer cells naturally over-expressing the nuclear receptor for estrogen (ER). Competitive radioligand binding assays of this conjugate with recombinant ER showed that the conjugate bound to ER in a(More)