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Experimental and theoretical studies demonstrate that both global dendritic branching topology and fine spine geometry are crucial determinants of neuronal function, its plasticity and pathology. Importantly, simulation studies indicate that the interaction between local and global morphologic properties is pivotal in determining dendritic information(More)
Inner dynein arms, but not outer dynein arms, require the activity of KHP1(FLA10) to reach the distal part of axonemes before binding to outer doublet microtubules. We have analyzed the rescue of inner or outer dynein arms in quadriflagellate dikaryons by immunofluorescence microscopy of p28(IDA4), an inner dynein arm light chain, or IC69(ODA6), an outer(More)
A microtubule-based transport of protein complexes, which is bidirectional and occurs between the space surrounding the basal bodies and the distal part of Chlamydomonas flagella, is referred to as intraflagellar transport (IFT). The IFT involves molecular motors and particles that consist of 17S protein complexes. To identify the function of different(More)
Cognitive impairment in normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases is accompanied by altered morphologies on multiple scales. Understanding of the role of these structural changes in producing functional deficits in brain aging and neuropsychiatric disorders requires accurate three-dimensional representations of neuronal morphology, and realistic(More)
A fundamental feature of the mammalian visual system is the presence of separate channels that work in parallel to efficiently extract and analyze specific elements of a visual scene. Despite the extensive use of the mouse as a model system, it is not clear whether such parallel organization extends beyond the retina to subcortical structures, such as the(More)
Gbeta5 exists as two splice variants, Gbeta5-S and Gbeta5-L, which interact with and stabilize the R7 members of the regulators of G-protein signaling (RGSs): RGS6, RGS7, RGS9, and RGS11. Although the role of Gbeta5-L and RGS9-1 is established in photoreceptors, the physiological functions of Gbeta5-S and other R7 RGS proteins remain unclear. We found that(More)
PURPOSE Previous studies have documented a synaptic translocation of calcineurin (CaN) and increased CaN activity following status epilepticus (SE); however, the cellular effect of these changes in CaN in the pathology of SE remains to be elucidated. This study examined a CaN-dependent modification of the dendritic cytoskeleton. CaN has been shown to induce(More)
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) have been identified as pacemaker cells in the upper urinary tract and urethra, but the role of ICCs in the bladder remains to be determined. We tested the hypotheses that ICCs express cyclooxygenase (COX), and that COX products (prostaglandins), are the cause of spontaneous rhythmic contraction (SRC) of isolated strips of(More)
Paranodal axo-glial junctional complexes anchor the myelin sheath to the axon and breakdown of these complexes presumably facilitates demyelination. Myelin deterioration is also prominent in the aging central nervous system (CNS); however, the stability of the paranodal complexes in the aged CNS has not been examined. Here, we show that transverse bands,(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors spontaneously switch between active and inactive conformations. Agonists stabilize the active conformation, whereas antagonists stabilize the inactive conformation. In a systematic search for residues that participate in receptor function, several regions of the m5 muscarinic receptor were randomly mutated and tested for their(More)