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What features in a stereogram define the disparities that lead to stereoscopic depth? The usual answer is that luminance-defined edges from the two eyes are matched and produce depth perception. But parts of an object may be occluded by other objects and absent from one eye's view. It was suggested that unpaired monocular elements might signal occlusion in(More)
Computational approaches to stereo matching have often taken advantage of a geometric constraint which states that matching elements in the left and right eye images will always fall on "epipolar lines". The use of this epipolar constraint reduces the search space from two dimensions to one, producing a tremendous saving in the computation time required to(More)
It is important to know the spatial extent over which the binocular visual system searches for "matches" or image correspondence. Most models of stereopsis define fixed neighbourhoods in one monocular image in which a search is conducted for a match to some element in the other image. We were unable to experimentally determine fixed values for the extent of(More)
Conjugate gaze is often defined as the equal angle rotation of the two eyes. For fixation at far distances, the optical axes are parallel and conjugacy is defined irrespective of the coordinate system. For nearby or finite fixation distances, the evaluation of conjugacy for many gaze postures depends on the coordinate system used to measure it. For example,(More)
Increasing the contrast of just one eye's image degrades stereothresholds; this phenomenon is referred to as the stereo contrast paradox. In experiment one, this paradox was found to be absent in dynamic random-element stereograms; thresholds were simply limited by the lower of the two eyes' contrasts. In experiment two, in which narrowband Gabor targets(More)
1. Behavioral experiments with jittering echoes examined acoustic images of sonar targets in the echolocating bat, Eptesicus fuscus, along the echo delay or target range axis. Echo phase, amplitude, bandwidth, and signal-to-noise ratio were manipulated to assess the underlying auditory processes for image formation. 2. Fine delay acuity is about 10 ns.(More)
We have investigated the nature and viability of interocular correlation as a measure of signal strength in the cyclopean domain. Thresholds for the detection of interocular correlation in dynamic random element stereograms were measured as a function of luminance contrast, a more traditional measure of stimulus strength. At high contrasts, correlation(More)
The change in sensitivity across some stimulus dimension which follows adaptation to a particular stimulus can reveal a great deal about the tuning characteristics of underlying sensory/perceptual mechanisms. In this study, a psychophysical adaptation paradigm was employed to characterize the disparity tuning of perceptual mechanisms involved in stereopsis.(More)
Previous studies of perceived attraction or repulsion of adjacent visual targets have used local targets whose positions were varied in both depth and direction. We have measured these effects in three subjects using dynamic random-dot stereograms to isolate depth-axis effects. Results show that both attraction and repulsion effects can occur for(More)
Visual suppression accompanying voluntary saccades and eyeblinks was measured for a range of amplitudes of both. Saccade amplitudes varied from 2 to 32 degrees and blink amplitudes varied from a slight movement to a full closure of the eye. In every case, thresholds for detecting full-field luminance decrements were determined with the method of constant(More)