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Iron is the most abundant transition metal within the brain, and is vital for a number of cellular processes including neurotransmitter synthesis, myelination of neurons, and mitochondrial function. Redox cycling between ferrous and ferric iron is utilized in biology for various electron transfer reactions essential to life, yet this same chemistry mediates(More)
The microtubule-associated protein tau has risk alleles for both Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and mutations that cause brain degenerative diseases termed tauopathies. Aggregated tau forms neurofibrillary tangles in these pathologies, but little is certain about the function of tau or its mode of involvement in pathogenesis. Neuronal iron(More)
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein linked with neurodegenerative diseases. Humans express six different isoforms of tau; the longest containing four microtubule-binding repeat motifs in the C-terminal that are vital for what is considered the major biological function of tau, to stabilize microtubules and facilitate axonal transport. The capacity of(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) regulates multiple cellular processes, and its dysregulation is implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases. In this paper we will focus on the dysfunction of GSK-3 in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Specifically, GSK-3 is known to interact with tau, β-amyloid (Aβ), and α-synuclein, and as such may be(More)
2012 has been another year in which multiple large-scale clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have failed to meet their clinical endpoints. With the social and financial burden of this disease increasing every year, the onus is now on the field of AD researchers to investigate alternative ideas to deliver outcomes for patients. Although several(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits accompanying degeneration of substantia nigra pars compactor (SNc) neurons. Although familial forms of the disease exist, the cause of sporadic PD is unknown. Symptomatic treatments are available for PD, but there are no disease modifying therapies. While the(More)
Ceruloplasmin is an iron-export ferroxidase that is abundant in plasma and also expressed in glia. We found a ∼80% loss of ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity in the substantia nigra of idiopathic Parkinson disease (PD) cases, which could contribute to the pro-oxidant iron accumulation that characterizes the pathology. Consistent with a role for(More)
BACKGROUND Iron oxidation is thought to be predominantly handled enzymatically in the body, to minimize spontaneous combustion with oxygen and to facilitate cellular iron export by loading transferrin. This process may be impaired in disease, and requires more accurate analytical assays to interrogate enzymatic- and auto-oxidation within a physiologically(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder characterised by loss of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. The pathological hallmarks are cytoplasmic inclusions termed Lewy bodies consisting primarily of aggregated α-synuclein (αSN). Different lines of transgenic mice have been developed to model PD but have failed to(More)
The amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) positions tau protein as a downstream mediator of β-amyloid (Aβ) toxicity This is largely based on genetic cross breeding, which showed that tau ablation in young (3–7-month-old) transgenic mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) abolished the phenotype of the APP AD model. This(More)