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BACKGROUND Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a secreted immunoregulatory cytokine critically involved in host protection from parasitic helminths 1. Reasoning that helminths may have evolved mechanisms to antagonize IL4 to maximize their dispersal, we explored mammalian IL4 evolution. RESULTS This analysis revealed evidence of diversifying selection at 15 residues,(More)
Mirror augmented photovoltaic (MAPV) systems utilize low cost mirrors to couple more light into a photovoltaic (PV) absorber. By increasing the light absorbed, they are expected to produce less expensive electricity. As a substrate candidate for back surface reflector mirrors, two grades of PMMA have been exposed to UV stress from two sources at two(More)
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses pose a continuing global threat. Current vaccines will not protect against novel pandemic viruses. Creating " universal " vaccines has been unsuccessful because the immunological mechanisms promoting heterosubtypic immunity are incompletely defined. We show that rapamycin, an immunosuppressive drug that inhibits(More)
Naive and recall CD4(+) T cell responses were probed with recombinant influenza A viruses incorporating the OVA OT-II peptide. The extent of OT-II-specific CD4(+) T cell expansion was greater following primary exposure, with secondary challenge achieving no significant increase in numbers, despite higher precursor frequencies. Adoptive transfer experiments(More)
—We report on the design, construction, and initial performance measurements of a low-concentration photovoltaic system based on compound parabolic concentrators (CPCs). The system is approximately a 7× concentration system and uses commercially available laser groove buried contact monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. The CPCs are fabricated using a(More)
Replex Plastics aims to develop a low-cost, low-concentration photovoltaic module using a metallized acrylic reflector designed for use with an inclined single-axis tracker. An asymmetric compound parabolic concentrator is developed and analyzed optimizing the many factors impacting the design, such as tracking strategy, manufacturing process, and cell(More)
Currently, there are more than 30 million people infected with HIV-1 and thousands more are infected each day. Vaccination is the single most effective mechanism for prevention of viral disease, and after more than 25 years of research, one vaccine has shown somewhat encouraging results in an advanced clinical efficacy trial. A modified intent-to-treat(More)
In this paper we describe a method for validating therapeutic gene targets in arthritic disease. Ribozymes are catalytic oligonucleotides capable of highly sequence-specific cleavage of RNA. We designed ribozymes that cleave the mRNA encoding stromelysin, a matrix metalloproteinase implicated in cartilage catabolism. Ribozymes were initially screened in(More)
The inflammasome is an intracellular signaling complex, which on recognition of pathogens and physiological aberration, drives activation of caspase-1, pyroptosis, and the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Bacterial ligands must secure entry into the cytoplasm to activate inflammasomes; however, the mechanisms by which concealed(More)
The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). The BCL-2 family effectors BAX and BAK are thought to be absolutely required for this process. Here, we report that BCL-2 ovarian killer (BOK) is a bona fide yet unconventional effector of MOMP that can trigger apoptosis in the absence of both BAX(More)