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A model of infrared neural stimulation (INS) has been developed to allow the temporal characteristics of different stimulation parameters and geometries to be better understood. The model uses a finite element approach to solve the heat equation and allow detailed analysis of heat during INS with both microsecond and millisecond laser pulses. When compared(More)
A Monte Carlo model has been developed to simulate light transport and absorption in neural tissue during infrared neural stimulation (INS). A range of fiber core sizes and numerical apertures are compared illustrating the advantages of using simulations when designing a light delivery system. A range of wavelengths, commonly used for INS, are also compared(More)
At present there is some debate as to the processes by which infrared neural stimulation (INS) activates neurons in the cochlea, as the lasers used for INS can potentially generate a range of secondary stimuli e.g. an acoustic stimulus is produced when the light is absorbed by water. To clarify whether INS in the cochlea requires functioning hair cells and(More)
Bacterial biofilms are complex multicellular communities that are often associated with the emergence of large-scale patterns across the biofilm. How bacteria self-organize to form these structured communities is an area of active research. We have recently determined that the emergence of an intricate network of trails that forms during the twitching(More)
A model to simulate heating as a result of pulse repetitions during infrared neural stimulation (INS), with both single- and multiple-emitters is presented. This model allows the temperature increases from pulse trains rather than single pulses to be considered. The model predicts that using a stimulation rate of 250 Hz with typical laser parameters at a(More)
Nondestructive images of refractive-index variation within a type I fiber Bragg grating have been recorded by the differential interference contrast imaging technique. The images reveal detailed structure within the fiber core that is consistent with the formation of Talbot planes in the diffraction pattern behind the phase mask that had been used to(More)
A comparison is made between the modeled and experimentally determined microscopic images of a type I Bragg grating produced in the core of an optical fiber using the ultraviolet irradiation of a phase mask. The simulated image of the refractive-index distribution, which assumes a linear relationship between the irradiation intensity and the(More)
We have constructed fiber-optic sensors to measure temperature and strain by combining the properties of fiber Bragg gratings with the fluorescent lifetimes of various doped fibers. Sensors have been made with the fiber Bragg grating written directly into the doped fiber to ensure the collocation of the strain and temperature measurement points. Results are(More)
An optical fiber temperature sensor, based on the fluorescence intensity ratio from the (2)F (5/2)(a) and (2)F(5/2)(b) Stark sublevels in ytterbium-doped silica fiber, has been investigated. Results of a sensor prototype demonstrate an accuracy near 1 degrees C in a 600 degrees C temperature range. Changes in the fluorescence intensity ratio because of(More)