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We show that sex steroids protect the adult murine skeleton through a mechanism that is distinct from that used to preserve the mass and function of reproductive organs. The classical genotropic actions of sex steroid receptors are dispensable for their bone protective effects, but essential for their effects on reproductive tissues. A synthetic ligand(More)
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vpr gene encodes a protein which induces arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that following the arrest of cells in G2, Vpr induces apoptosis in human fibroblasts, T cells, and primary peripheral blood lymphocytes. Analysis of various mutations in the vpr gene revealed that(More)
Because osteoblasts and marrow adipocytes are derived from a common mesenchymal progenitor, increased adipogenesis may occur at the expense of osteoblasts, leading to bone loss. Our previous in vitro studies indicated that activation of the proadipogenic transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoform gamma 2 with rosiglitazone(More)
Expression of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) Vpr after productive infection of T cells induces cell cycle arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. In the absence of de novo expression, HIV-1 Vpr packaged into virions still induced cell cycle arrest. Naturally noninfectious virus or virus rendered defective for infection by reverse(More)
Glucocorticoid administration to mice results in a rapid loss of bone mineral density due to an imbalance in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers. Whereas excess glucocorticoids reduce both osteoblast and osteoclast precursors, cancellous osteoclast number surprisingly does not decrease as does osteoblast number, presumably due to the ability of(More)
Human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) is the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), a malignancy of T lymphocytes that is characterized by a long latency period after virus exposure. Intraperitoneal inoculation of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with HTLV-transformed cell lines and ATL tumor cells was employed to investigate the(More)
New models of angiogenesis that mimic the complexity of real microvascular networks are needed. Recently, our laboratory demonstrated that cultured rat mesentery tissues contain viable microvascular networks and could be used to probe pericyte-endothelial cell interactions. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the rat mesentery(More)
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