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Neuronal signals in the lateral aspect of the macaque cerebellar cortex were studied during a visually guided reaching task. During the performance of this task, the firing rate of most neurons was significantly modulated when reaching with either the ipsilateral or the contralateral arm. In some of these reach-modulated cells, we found that spike firing(More)
In a previous study, others have hypothesized that the variance in vertical errors that occurs while throwing at visual targets is caused by changes in any of three throw parameters: hand location in space, hand translational velocity, and hand orientation. From an analysis of skilled throwers, those authors concluded that vertical error is best correlated(More)
In this grand rounds, we focus on development, validation, and application of neuroimaging biomarkers for Parkinson disease (PD). We cover whether such biomarkers can be used to identify presymptomatic individuals (probably yes), provide a measure of PD severity (in a limited fashion, but frequently done poorly), investigate pathophysiology of parkinsonian(More)
The present study demonstrated that the magnitude of after-effect due to wedge prisms depends on the form of the visual feedback used to represent hand and target position in fast, targeted, transverse reaches. Trained human subjects made reaches with and without prisms in three visuomotor representations (VR): (1) the subject's actual hand and targets(More)
We studied coordination across body parts in throwing during adaptation to prisms. Human subjects threw balls at a target before, during, and after wearing laterally shifting prism eyeglasses. Positions of head, shoulders, arm, and ball were video-recorded continuously. We computed body angles of eyes-in-head, head-on-trunk, trunk-on-arm, and arm-on-ball.(More)
Complex (CS)- and simple-spike (SS) discharge from single Purkinje cells (Pc) in the posterolateral cerebellum of two monkeys was recorded during a visually guided reach-touch task. A visual target appeared (TA) off-gaze at a random location on a screen. On initiation of arm reach, the target disappeared, then reappeared (TR) after a fixed delay. TR was(More)
Three monkeys performed a visually guided reach-touch task with and without laterally displacing prisms. The prisms offset the normally aligned gaze/reach and subsequent touch. Naive monkeys showed adaptation, such that on repeated prism trials the gaze-reach angle widened and touches hit nearer the target. On the first subsequent no-prism trial the monkeys(More)
A number of studies have been interpreted to support the view that the inferior olive climbing fibers send periodic signals to the cerebellum to time and pace behavior. In a direct test of this hypothesis in macaques performing nonperiodic tasks, we analyzed continuous recordings of complex spikes from the lateral cerebellar hemisphere. We found no(More)
Evidence has been accumulating which supports a role for the cerebellum in motor learning. Motor learning is though to be mediated by complex spikes acting as an error signal, which when firing in conjunction with simple spike activity modify synapses between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells. We studied the activity of neurons in the posterior lateral(More)
The anatomical connections of the parvocellular red nucleus (RNp) have led to the suggestion that it might participate along with the cerebellum in modifying old and developing new programs for the control of complex, compound, coordinated movements of multiple body parts. RNp projects to and excites the inferior olivary nuclear neurons, which send climbing(More)