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The two DNA strands of the nuclear genome are replicated asymmetrically using three DNA polymerases, α, δ, and ε. Current evidence suggests that DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is the primary leading strand replicase, whereas Pols α and δ primarily perform lagging strand replication. The fact that these polymerases differ in fidelity and error specificity is(More)
Multiple sequence changes that are simultaneously introduced in a single DNA transaction have a higher probability of altering gene function than do single base substitutions. DNA polymerase zeta (Pol ζ) has been shown to introduce such clustered mutations under specific selective and/or DNA damage-producing conditions. In this study, a forward mutation(More)
Ribonucleotides are frequently incorporated into DNA during replication in eukaryotes. Here we map genome-wide distribution of these ribonucleotides as markers of replication enzymology in budding yeast, using a new 5' DNA end-mapping method, hydrolytic end sequencing (HydEn-seq). HydEn-seq of DNA from ribonucleotide excision repair-deficient strains(More)
RNase H2-dependent ribonucleotide excision repair (RER) removes ribonucleotides incorporated during DNA replication. When RER is defective, ribonucleotides in the nascent leading strand of the yeast genome are associated with replication stress and genome instability. Here, we provide evidence that topoisomerase 1 (Top1) initiates an independent form of(More)
Mutational heterogeneity must be taken into account when reconstructing evolutionary histories, calibrating molecular clocks, and predicting links between genes and disease. Selective pressures and various DNA transactions have been invoked to explain the heterogeneous distribution of genetic variation between species, within populations, and in(More)
To maintain genome stability, mismatch repair of nuclear DNA replication errors must be directed to the nascent strand, likely by DNA ends and PCNA. Here we show that the efficiency of mismatch repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is reduced by inactivating RNase H2, which nicks DNA containing ribonucleotides incorporated during replication. In strains(More)
Conjugative transfer of plasmid DNA via close cell-cell junctions is the main route by which antibiotic resistance genes spread between bacterial strains. Relaxases are essential for conjugative transfer and act by cleaving DNA strands and forming covalent phosphotyrosine linkages. Based on data indicating that multityrosine relaxase enzymes can accommodate(More)
During DNA synthesis in vitro using dNTP and rNTP concentrations present in vivo, yeast replicative DNA polymerases α, δ and ɛ (Pols α, δ and ɛ) stably incorporate rNTPs into DNA. rNTPs are also incorporated during replication in vivo, and they are repaired in an RNase H2-dependent manner. In strains encoding a mutator allele of Pol ɛ (pol2-M644G), failure(More)
To investigate DNA replication enzymology across the nuclear genome of budding yeast, deep sequencing was used to establish the pattern of uncorrected replication errors generated by an asymmetric mutator variant of DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ). Sequencing of 16 genomes identified 1,206-bp substitutions generated over 33 generations by L612M Pol δ in a mismatch(More)