Scott A Kelly

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In vertebrates, including humans, individuals harbor gut microbial communities whose species composition and relative proportions of dominant microbial groups are tremendously varied. Although external and stochastic factors clearly contribute to the individuality of the microbiota, the fundamental principles dictating how environmental factors and host(More)
Selective breeding for over 35 generations has led to four replicate (S) lines of laboratory house mice (Mus domesticus) that run voluntarily on wheels about 170% more than four random-bred control (C) lines. We tested whether S lines have evolved higher running performance by increasing running economy (i.e., decreasing energy spent per unit of distance)(More)
Natural or artificial selection that favors higher values of a particular trait within a given population should engender an evolutionary response that increases the mean value of the trait. For this prediction to hold, the phenotypic variance of the trait must be caused in part by additive effects of alleles segregating in the population, and also the(More)
Voluntary activity is a complex trait, comprising both behavioral (motivation, reward) and anatomical/physiological (ability) elements. In the present study, oxygen transport was investigated as a possible limitation to further increases in running by four replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running and have(More)
To examine the evolution of endurance-exercise behaviour, we have selectively bred four replicate lines of laboratory mice (Mus domesticus) for high voluntary wheel running (;high runner' or HR lines), while also maintaining four non-selected control (C) lines. By generation 16, HR mice ran approximately 2.7-fold more than C mice, mainly by running faster(More)
Studies of rodents have shown that both forced and voluntary chronic exercise cause increased hindlimb bone diameter, mass, and strength. Among species of mammals, "cursoriality" is generally associated with longer limbs as well as relative lengthening of distal limb segments, resulting in an increased metatarsal/femur (MT/F) ratio. Indeed, we show that(More)
From outbred Hsd:ICR mice, we selectively bred 4 replicate lines for high running (High-Runner [HR] lines) on wheels while maintaining 4 nonselected lines as controls (C lines). An apparent Mendelian recessive, the "mini-muscle" (MM) allele, whose main phenotypic effect is to reduce hindlimb muscle mass by 50%, was discovered in 2 HR lines and 1 C line.(More)
Prolonged selective breeding of Hsd:ICR mice for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favored an unusual phenotype (mini-muscle [MM]), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which hindlimb muscle mass is reduced by almost 50%. We recently described the creation and phenotypic characterization of a population suitable for mapping(More)
Bone strength is influenced by many properties intrinsic to bone, including its mass, geometry, and mineralization. To further advance our understanding of the genetic basis of bone-strength-related traits, we used a large (n = 815), moderately (G(4) ) advanced intercross line (AIL) of mice derived from a high-runner selection line (HR) and the C57BL/6J(More)
We present a novel mouse-model for the study of skeletal structure and evolution, based on selective breeding for high levels of voluntary wheel running. Whereas traditional models (originally inbred strains, more recently knockouts and transgenics) rely on the study of mutant or laboratory-manipulated phenotypes, we have studied changes in skeletal(More)