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Salicin-based phenolic glycosides, hydroxycinnamate derivatives and flavonoid-derived condensed tannins comprise up to one-third of Populus leaf dry mass. Genes regulating the abundance and chemical diversity of these substances have not been comprehensively analysed in tree species exhibiting this metabolically demanding level of phenolic metabolism. Here,(More)
In plants, the glycine decarboxylase complex (GDC) cooperates with serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) to mediate photorespiratory glycine-serine interconversion. GDC is also postulated to be an integral component of one-carbon (C1) metabolism in heterotrophic tissues, although molecular evidence in plants is scarce. An initial report of a xylem-specific(More)
BACKGROUND Phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic glycosides (PGs) and condensed tannins (CTs) comprise large, multi-purpose non-structural carbon sinks in Populus. A negative correlation between PG and CT concentrations has been observed in several studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship is not known. RESULTS Populus cell cultures(More)
The biosynthetic costs of phenylpropanoid-derived condensed tannins (CTs) and phenolic glycosides (PGs) are substantial. However, despite reports of negative correlations between leaf phenolic content and growth of Populus, it remains unclear whether or how foliar biosynthesis of CT/PG interferes with tree growth. A comparison was made of carbon(More)
MOTIVATION Microarray experiments typically analyze thousands to tens of thousands of genes from small numbers of biological replicates. The fact that genes are normally expressed in functionally relevant patterns suggests that gene-expression data can be stratified and clustered into relatively homogenous groups. Cluster-wise dimensionality reduction(More)
The Populus sucrose (Suc) transporter 4 (PtaSUT4), like its orthologs in other plant taxa, is tonoplast localized and thought to mediate Suc export from the vacuole into the cytosol. In source leaves of Populus, SUT4 is the predominantly expressed gene family member, with transcript levels several times higher than those of plasma membrane SUTs. A(More)
The diversity of phenylpropanoids offers a rich inventory of bioactive chemicals that can be exploited for plant improvement and human health. Recent evidence suggests that glycosylation may play a role in the partitioning of phenylpropanoid precursors for a variety of downstream uses. This work reports the functional characterization of a stress-responsive(More)
AIMS This study surveyed referring clinicians to identify barriers that may contribute to New Zealand's low national implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implant rate. METHODS We conducted a telephone survey of 100 cardiologists and general physicians working at 30 different New Zealand hospitals who routinely manage patients with ischaemic heart(More)
OBJECTIVE The inflammatory cytokine, tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), exerts deleterious cardiovascular effects. We wished to determine the effects of TNF-α antagonism on endothelial function and platelet activation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN AND SETTING AND PATIENTS A double-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled trial(More)
Cortical microtubules are integral to plant morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and stomatal behaviour, presumably by governing cellulose microfibril orientation. Genetic manipulation of tubulins often leads to abnormal plant development, making it difficult to probe additional roles of cortical microtubules in cell wall biogenesis. Here, it is shown that(More)