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RNA interference (RNAi) is a widespread silencing mechanism that acts at both the posttranscriptional and transcriptional levels. Here, we describe the purification of an RNAi effector complex termed RITS (RNA-induced initiation of transcriptional gene silencing) that is required for heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast. The RITS complex contains Ago1(More)
RNAi-mediated heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast requires the RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complex and a putative RNA-directed RNA polymerase (Rdp1). Here we show that Rdp1 is associated with two conserved proteins, Hrr1, an RNA helicase, and Cid12, a member of the polyA polymerase family, in a complex that has RNA-directed RNA(More)
A need exists for technologies that permit the direct quantification of differences in protein and posttranslationally modified protein expression levels. Here we present a strategy for the absolute quantification (termed AQUA) of proteins and their modification states. Peptides are synthesized with incorporated stable isotopes as ideal internal standards(More)
Transcriptional silencing at the budding yeast silent mating type (HM) loci and telomeric DNA regions requires Sir2, a conserved NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir3, Sir4, histones H3 and H4, and several DNA-binding proteins. Silencing at the yeast ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats requires a complex containing Sir2, Net1, and Cdc14. Here we show that the(More)
Necroptosis is a cellular mechanism of necrotic cell death induced by apoptotic stimuli in the form of death domain receptor engagement by their respective ligands under conditions where apoptotic execution is prevented. Although it occurs under regulated conditions, necroptotic cell death is characterized by the same morphological features as unregulated(More)
Data analysis and interpretation remain major logistical challenges when attempting to identify large numbers of protein phosphorylation sites by nanoscale reverse-phase liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (Supplementary Figure 1 online). In this report we address challenges that are often only addressable by laborious manual(More)
Mitosis is a process involving a complex series of events that require careful coordination. Protein phosphorylation by a small number of kinases, in particular Aurora A, Aurora B, the cyclin-dependent kinase-cyclin complex Cdk1/cyclinB, and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), orchestrates almost every step of cell division, from entry into mitosis to cytokinesis.(More)
Separation of sister chromatids in anaphase is mediated by separase, an endopeptidase that cleaves the chromosomal cohesin SCC1. Separase is inhibited by securin, which is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition. Using Xenopus egg extracts, we demonstrate that high CDC2 activity inhibits anaphase but not securin degradation. We show that separase is(More)
Protein phosphorylation is a complex network of signaling and regulatory events that affects virtually every cellular process. Our understanding of the nature of this network as a whole remains limited, largely because of an array of technical challenges in the isolation and high-throughput sequencing of phosphorylated species. In the present work, we(More)
Mass spectrometers that provide high mass accuracy such as FT-ICR instruments are increasingly used in proteomic studies. Although the importance of accurately determined molecular masses for the identification of biomolecules is generally accepted, its role in the analysis of shotgun proteomic data has not been thoroughly studied. To gain insight into this(More)