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Regulation of interleukin (IL)-12 production by coexpression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in human monocytes infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra was analyzed. Also, since IL-12 induces interferon (IFN)-gamma, the effect of IFN-gamma on IL-12 expression was examined. IL-12 mRNA was measured(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its antigens are potent inducers of cytokine expression by mononuclear phagocytes. In this study, the ability of live M. tuberculosis to stimulate interleukin-12 (IL-12) expression by human monocytes was examined. Monocytes were purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by adherence and either infected with M.(More)
Latency-associated peptide of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) (LAP) was used to determine whether in vivo modulation of TGF-beta bioactivity enhanced pulmonary immunity to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in C57BL/6 mice. LAP decreased BCG growth in the lung and enhanced antigen-specific T-cell proliferation and gamma interferon mRNA expression.(More)
The role of type I interferon (IFN-alphabeta) in modulating innate or adaptive immune responses against mycobacterial infection in the lung is unclear. In this study we investigated the susceptibility of IFN-alphabeta-receptor-deficient (IFN-alphabetaR-/-) mice to pulmonary infection with aerosolized Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG).(More)
Alveolar macrophages constitute a primary defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but they are unable to control M. tuberculosis without acquired T-cell immunity. This study determined the antigen-presenting cell function of murine alveolar macrophages and the ability of the model mycobacterium, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, to modulate it. The majority (80(More)
A hallmark of M. tuberculosis infection is the ability of most (90-95%) healthy adults to control infection through acquired immunity, in which antigen specific T cells and macrophages arrest growth of M. tuberculosis bacilli and maintain control over persistent bacilli. In addition to CD4+ T cells, other T cell subsets such as, gammadelta, CD8+ and(More)
Immune evasion is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to survive in the face of robust adaptive CD4(+) T-cell responses. We have previously shown that M. tuberculosis can indirectly inhibit CD4(+) T cells by suppressing the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-presenting cell function of macrophages. This study was undertaken to determine(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature regarding long-term prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in patients with cirrhosis. DATA SOURCES A MEDLINE (1967-September 2004) and bibliographic search of the English-language literature was conducted using the search terms spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, cirrhosis, antimicrobial, and prophylaxis.(More)
Although neutrophils have been identified as sources of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, little is known about their immunologic function during mycobacterial infection in the lungs. In this study, we examined the growth of Mycobacterium bovis BCG in the lungs under experimental conditions that altered neutrophil recruitment to the lungs. Depletion(More)
Paradoxical excitation after benzodiazepine administration is well described. Although it is relatively uncommon, its occurrence can severely impede or even prevent the performance of upper endoscopy. We describe three cases in which paradoxical reactions to midazolam responded so well to flumazenil administration that the procedure was successfully(More)