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To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes(More)
We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded;(More)
We tested the hypothesis that highly structured course designs, which implement reading quizzes and/or extensive in-class active-learning activities and weekly practice exams, can lower failure rates in an introductory biology course for majors, compared with low-structure course designs that are based on lecturing and a few high-risk assessments. We(More)
The particulate scattering characteristics of coastal waters were examined at nine locations around the United States, including near-shore sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The scattering measurements were used in conjunction with inversion models to estimate particle size distributions and bulk refractive indices of the(More)
Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics instructors have been charged with improving the performance and retention of students from diverse backgrounds. To date, programs that close the achievement gap between students from disadvantaged versus nondisadvantaged educational backgrounds have required extensive extramural funding. We show that a(More)
B iology education and medical education are under scrutiny. The essence of the critique is that introductory biology courses for undergraduates and basic science courses in medical schools overemphasize “factual minutiae” [(1), p. 1343] over the things that working biologists and physicians claim students actually need to master—specifically, critical(More)
Hyperspectral profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance in natural waters (oligotrophic and mesotrophic) are combined with inverse radiative transfer to obtain high resolution spectra of the absorption coefficient (a) and the backscattering coefficient (b(b)) of the water and its constituents. The absorption coefficient at the mesotrophic(More)
Although researchers in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education are currently using several methods to analyze learning gains from pre- and posttest data, the most commonly used approaches have significant shortcomings. Chief among these is the inability to distinguish whether differences in learning gains are due to the(More)
The Thermus isolate Rt4A2 was found to produce an extracellular chelator-resistant proteinase. The proteinase was purified to homogeneity by (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, cation-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration chromatography, and weak anion-exchange chromatography. The Rt4A2 proteinase was found to have properties typical of an alkaline serine(More)
Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education outlined five core concepts intended to guide undergraduate biology education: 1) evolution; 2) structure and function; 3) information flow, exchange, and storage; 4) pathways and transformations of energy and matter; and 5) systems. We have taken these general recommendations and created a Vision and(More)