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Stoichiometric epitaxial LaAlO(3) grown on TiO(2)-terminated SrTiO(3)(001) by off-axis pulsed laser deposition is shown to exhibit strong cation intermixing. This result is corroborated by classical and quantum mechanical calculations of the relative stabilities of abrupt and intermixed interface configurations. The valence band offset was measured to be(More)
Oxygen vacancies are often present in complex oxides as point defects, and their effect on the electronic properties is typically uniform and isotropic. Exploiting oxygen deficiency in order to generate controllably novel structures and functional properties remains a challenging goal. Here we show that epitaxial strontium chromite films can be transformed,(More)
In some species of sea urchin, such as Lytechinus variegatus beta-1, 3-glucanase activity is present at two distinct developmental stages (in the unfertilized egg and again following gastrulation). There is a different form of the enzyme beta-1, 3-glucanase specific to each stage, and these forms can be distinguished immunologically and biochemically. The(More)
The ultrastructural localization of B-1,3-glucanase in three species of sea urchin eggs was determined using a monospecific antibody in an electronmicroscopic immunogold procedure. In all three species, Lytechinus variegatus, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and Arbacia punctulata, B-1,3-glucanase was localized specifically to the cortical granules. No other(More)
Many materials have been theoretically predicted to be half-metallic, and hence suitable for use as pure spin sources in spintronic devices. Yet to date, remarkably few of these predictions have been experimentally verified. We have used spin polarized photoelectron spectroscopy to study one candidate half-metallic system, Fe(3)O(4). Such experiments are(More)
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier's archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: a b s t r a c t The question of stability against diffusional mixing at the(More)
The detailed science and technology of crystalline oxide film growth using vacuum methods is reviewed and discussed with an eye toward gaining fundamental insights into the relationships between growth process and parameters, film and interface structure and composition, and electronic, magnetic and photochemical properties. The topic is approached first(More)
We report element specific structural and magnetic investigations on Zn(1-x)Co(x)O epitaxial films using synchrotron radiation. Co dopants exclusively occupy Zn sites as revealed by x-ray linear dichroism having an unprecedented degree of structural perfection. Comparative magnetic field dependent measurements by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and(More)
Using microprojectile bombardment of maize suspension cultures and bialaphos selection, transformed embryogenic calli have been recovered in numerous independent experiments. Fertile transgenic plants have been regenerated from several transformed callus lines. Stable inheritance and expression ofbar and functional activity of the enzyme phosphinothricin(More)
The hypothesis that high-Curie-temperature ferromagnetism in cobalt-doped ZnO (Co2+: ZnO) is mediated by charge carriers was tested by controlled introduction and removal of the shallow donor interstitial zinc. Using oriented epitaxial Co2+: ZnO films grown by chemical vapor deposition, kinetics measurements demonstrate a direct correlation between the(More)