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The multicopper oxidases are an intriguing, widespread family of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of O2 to water by a variety of single-electron and multiple-electron reducing agents. The structure and properties of the copper binding sites responsible for the latter chemical transformations have been studied for over 40 years and a detailed picture is(More)
Type zero copper is a hard-ligand analogue of the classical type 1 or blue site in copper proteins that function as electron transfer (ET) agents in photosynthesis and other biological processes. The EPR spectroscopic features of type zero Cu(II) are very similar to those of blue copper, although lacking the deep blue color, due to the absence of thiolate(More)
Low reorganization free energies are necessary for fast electron transfer (ET) reactions. Hence, rational design of redox proteins with lower reorganization free energies has been a long-standing challenge, promising to yield a deeper understanding of the underlying principles of ET reactivity and to enable potential applications in different energy(More)
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