Scot Wherland

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A new approach is introduced for analyzing and ultimately predicting protein structures, defined at the level of C alpha coordinates. We analyze hexamers (oligopeptides of six amino acid residues) and show that their structure tends to concentrate in specific clusters rather than vary continuously. Thus, we can use a limited set of standard structural(More)
Intramolecular electron transfer from the type 1 copper center to the type 3 copper(II) pair is induced in the multi-copper enzyme, ascorbate oxidase, following pulse radiolytic reduction of the type 1 Cu(II) ion. In the presence of a slight excess of dioxygen over ascorbate oxidase, interaction between the trinuclear copper center and O2 is observed even(More)
The multicopper oxidases are an intriguing, widespread family of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of O2 to water by a variety of single-electron and multiple-electron reducing agents. The structure and properties of the copper binding sites responsible for the latter chemical transformations have been studied for over 40 years and a detailed picture is(More)
Rate constants and activation parameters have been determined for the internal electron transfer from type 1 (T1) to type 3 (T3) copper ions in laccase from both the fungus Trametes hirsuta and the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, using the pulse radiolysis method. The rate constant at 298 K and the enthalpy and entropy of activation were 25 ± 1 s(-1), 39.7 ±(More)
The reactions of horse heart cytochrome c with Fe(ethylenediaminetetraacetate)2-, Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+), Ru(NH3)6(2+), and Fe(CN)6(3-) have been analyzed within the formalism of the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer, including compensation for electrostatic interactions. Calculated protein self-exchange rate constants based on(More)
The functioning of cytochrome c oxidases involves orchestration of long-range electron transfer (ET) events among the four redox active metal centers. We report the temperature dependence of electron transfer from the Cu(A)(r) site to the low-spin heme-(a)b(o) site, i.e., Cu(A)(r) + heme-a(b)(o) → Cu(A)(o) + heme-a(b)(r) in three structurally characterized(More)
The Marcus theory of electron transfer (ET) predicts that while the ET rate constants increase with rising driving force until it equals a reaction's reorganization energy, at higher driving force the ET rate decreases, having reached the Marcus inverted region. While experimental evidence of the inverted region has been reported for organic and inorganic(More)
The cd(1) nitrite reductases, which catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, are homodimers of 60 kDa subunits, each containing one heme-c and one heme-d(1). Heme-c is the electron entry site, whereas heme-d(1) constitutes the catalytic center. The 3D structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa nitrite reductase has been determined in both fully oxidized(More)
Control of electron transfer rates, caused by intrinsic protein structural properties, is an intriguing feature of internal biological electron transfer (ET) reactions. The small laccase (SLAC) isolated from Streptomyces coelicolor has recently been shown to have structural and reactivity features distinct from those of other laccases. While other copper(More)