Scot R. Kimball

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Oral administration of a single bolus of leucine in an amount equivalent to the daily intake (1.35 g/kg body wt) enhances skeletal muscle protein synthesis in food-deprived rats. To elucidate whether smaller amounts of leucine can also stimulate protein synthesis, rats were administered the amino acid at concentrations ranging from 0.068 to 1.35 g/kg body(More)
Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such(More)
The objectives of the present study were twofold: 1) to determine whether leucine is unique among the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in its ability to stimulate protein synthesis in skeletal muscle of food-deprived rats; and 2) to investigate whether changes in muscle protein synthesis after leucine administration involve a signaling pathway that(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is viewed as an energy sensor that acts to modulate glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. Given that protein synthesis is a high energy-consuming process, it may be transiently depressed during cellular energy stress. Thus, the intent of this investigation was to examine whether AMPK activation(More)
Diabetic retinopathy remains a frightening prospect to patients and frustrates physicians. Destruction of damaged retina by photocoagulation remains the primary treatment nearly 50 years after its introduction. The diabetes pandemic requires new approaches to understand the pathophysiology and improve the detection, prevention, and treatment of retinopathy.(More)
In eukaryotic cells subjected to environmental stress, untranslated mRNA accumulates in discrete cytoplasmic foci that have been termed stress granules. Recent studies have shown that in addition to mRNA, stress granules also contain 40S ribosomal subunits and various translation initiation factors, including the mRNA binding proteins eIF4E and eIF4G.(More)
BCAAs stimulate protein synthesis in in vitro preparations of skeletal muscle. Likewise, the stimulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle produced by intake of a mixed meal is due largely to BCAAs. Of the three BCAAs, leucine is the one primarily responsible for the stimulation of protein synthesis under these circumstances. The stimulatory effect of(More)
Amino acids act to regulate multiple processes related to gene expression, including modulation of the function of the proteins that mediate messenger RNA (mRNA) translation. By modulating the function of translation initiation and elongation factors, amino acids regulate the translation of mRNA on a global scale and also act to cause preferential changes(More)
eIF2B is a heteropentameric guanine-nucleotide exchange factor essential for protein synthesis initiation in eukaryotes. Its activity is inhibited in response to starvation or stress by phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of its substrate, translation initiation factor eIF2, resulting in reduced rates of translation and cell growth. We have used an in(More)
We investigated the protein synthetic response of skeletal muscle to an orally administered dose of leucine given alone or in combination with carbohydrate. Male rats were freely fed (F) or food deprived for 18 h; food-deprived rats were then administered saline (S), carbohydrate (CHO), leucine (L) or a combination of carbohydrate plus leucine (CL). CHO and(More)