Sayed Karam Shah

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Discovering ways to increase access to and delivery of interventions is a major challenge. Typically research is divorced from implementation, which has led to a growing literature about how to get research into practice. However, operational research is best prioritized, designed, implemented and replicated from within national programmes. The current(More)
A randomized controlled trial was carried out in Pakistan in 1999 to establish the effectiveness of the direct observation component of DOTS programmes. It found no significant differences in cure rates for patients directly observed by health facility workers, community health workers or by family members, as compared with the control group who had(More)
Xpert(®) MTB/RIF testing was offered to consecutive patients with presumptive tuberculosis (TB) attending two hospitals in Pakistan during April-May 2012, in addition to routine diagnostic protocol (smear microscopy, chest radiography and clinical judgement). We assessed the relative contribution of each tool in detecting pulmonary TB under routine(More)
SUMMARY In general, tuberculosis (TB) is more common in men than women. However, for reasons currently not understood, women are 1.5-2 times more likely to report TB compared to men in Pashtun region (Afghanistan, adjacent provinces Pakistan and Iran). We explored whether or not gender disparity in TB notifications in the Pashtun region of Pakistan can be(More)
There is limited evidence and lack of consensus whether second-hand smoke (SHS) increases risk of tuberculosis (TB), which has substantial implications for unrestricted smoking indoors and TB control policies. We aimed to establish the association between SHS and the risk of acquiring and worsening of TB in non-smokers. We identified 428 articles in the(More)
BACKGROUND Passive smoking is associated with tuberculosis (TB). Measures are required to protect non-smoking TB patients from second-hand smoke (SHS). SETTING We developed a behavioural intervention to encourage TB patients to implement smoking restrictions at home in Pakistan. OBJECTIVES To assess the likelihood of such an intervention being(More)
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