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STUDY OBJECTIVES There is a long-standing controversy surrounding the existence of dream experiences during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Previous studies have not answered the question whether this "NREM dream" originates from the NREM sleep mechanism because the subject might simply be recalling experiences from the preceding rapid eye movement(More)
Evaluating individual circadian rhythm traits is crucial for understanding the human biological clock system. The present study reports characterization of physiological and molecular parameters in 13 healthy male subjects under a constant routine condition, where interfering factors were kept to minimum. We measured hormonal secretion levels and examined(More)
There are large inter-individual differences in pupil size and suppression of melatonin by exposure to light. It has been reported that melatonin suppression by exposure to light increases when pupils are pharmacologically dilated. However, the correlation between normal inter-individual difference in pupil size and melatonin suppression by exposure to(More)
Working memory (WM) performance, which is an important factor for determining problem-solving and reasoning ability, has been firmly believed to be constant. However, recent findings have demonstrated that WM performance has the potential to be improved by repetitive training. Although various skills are reported to be improved by sleep, the beneficial(More)
Evaluation of circadian phenotypes is crucial for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases associated with disturbed biological rhythms such as circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs). We measured clock gene expression in fibroblasts from individual subjects and observed circadian rhythms in the cells (in vitro rhythms). Period length of the in vitro(More)
Workers who meet the criteria for shift work disorder (SWD) have elevated levels of risk for various health and behavioral problems. However, the impact of having SWD on shiftworkers engaged in rapid-rotation schedules is unknown. Moreover, the risk factors for the occurrence of SWD remain unclear. To clarify these issues, we conducted a(More)
Previous studies have reported that time perception in humans fluctuates over a 24-h period. Behavioral changes seem to affect human time perception, so that the fluctuation in human time perception may be the result of such changes due to self-determined activities. Recently, we carried out a study in which a healthy human cohort was asked to perform(More)
Previous studies suggested that various psychophysiological factors have influences on human time perception. In particular, working memory loads, time of day, body temperature, and mood were known as important modifiers of time perception. The purpose of this study is to elucidate factors affecting the short-term time perception under controlled condition.(More)
Human short-time perception shows diurnal variation. In general, short-time perception fluctuates in parallel with circadian clock parameters, while diurnal variation seems to be modulated by sleep deprivation per se. Functional imaging studies have reported that short-time perception recruits a neural network that includes subcortical structures, as well(More)
BACKGROUND Antihistamines with strong sedative-hypnotic properties are frequently prescribed for insomnia secondary to allergy, but the potential risks of such administration have not been fully elucidated. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted to evaluate next-day sleepiness and psychomotor(More)