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Intensive care is one of the most costly areas of hospital care. Unfortunately, because of the diversity of case mix, costing intensive care is difficult. Many described costing methods previously are limited by being cumbersome, laborious to apply and expensive. The aim of this study was to develop a method for costing intensive care which can be applied(More)
INTRODUCTION Throughout the world, trauma is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the young and most active group of society. While specialist trauma centers play a critical role in the survival after severe trauma, the assessment of trauma-related costs, budgeting for adequate trauma capacity, and determining the cost-effectiveness of(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of relatives' assessment of patients' quality of life and to measure the agreement between patients' and relatives' responses to the Short Form 36 quality of life questionnaire, at discharge from and 6 months following intensive care treatment. Ninety-nine patient-relative pairs were(More)
The Short Form 36 was used to compare critically ill patients' premorbid quality of life with normal values and investigate any changes following 6 months convalescence. One hundred and sixty-six survivors completed the Short Form 36 at discharge from intensive care. The answers given by survivors were significantly lower than normal for all dimensions.(More)
  • Saxon Ridley
  • 2005
INTRODUCTION Critical illness is an emergency because the inflammatory response has redundant multiple pathways; once triggered, it is difficult to control or suppress. Infection is a potent precursor of critical illness and increasing organ dysfunction has a synergistic, rather than purely additive, adverse effect on mortality. The longer the inflammatory(More)
High-dependency units are increasing in number and becoming an ever more important part of a hospital's facilities. The optimum staffing ratio is unknown, but the Department of Health and the Intensive Care Society recommend a level of one nurse to two patients. We recorded Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 scores and Nurse Dependency Scores for(More)
When compared with changes in hospital activity, corresponding fluctuations in critical-care activity are not clear. Therefore, trends in hospital activity were compared with those of the critical-care services and simple patient demographic details. The results suggest that while the size of hospitals remained static, hospital admissions and outpatient(More)
Using average number of patients expected in a year, average length of stay and a target occupancy level to calculate the number of critical care beds needed is mathematically incorrect because of nonlinearity and variability in the factors that control length of stay. For a target occupancy in excess of 80%, this simple calculation will typically(More)
Ventilator-associated pneumonia is common, difficult to diagnose, affects the most vulnerable of patients and carries a high mortality. During prolonged mechanical ventilation the oropharynx, sinuses, dentition and stomach of critically ill patients become colonised with pathogenic bacteria. Colonised secretions pool in the oropharynx and subglottic space.(More)