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OBJECTIVES The present study examined the effect of combined exposure to repeated challenge using low doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and chronic mild stress (CMS) together. This combined exposure(More)
OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme in dysregulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) enzyme, and(More)
BACKGROUND Depression and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are highly co-morbid, and hepatic JNK pathway may be involved in their relation. AIM To evaluate the impact of depression on NASH(More)
Several hypotheses link high fat diet (HFD) with the pathophysiology of depression and its response to antidepressants. This study aimed to determine the effect of metformin (MET) on the cognitive(More)
Depression is the disease of the modern era. The lack of response to the available antidepressants, which were developed on the basis of the monoaminergic deficit hypothesis of depression, has(More)