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Interferon gamma (IFN gamma) is the hallmark cytokine produced by T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, whereas interleukin (IL)-4 is the hallmark cytokine produced by Th2 cells. Although previous studies have revealed the roles of cytokine signaling and of transcription factors during differentiation of Th1 or Th2 cells, it is unclear how the exclusive expression(More)
TCRαβ thymocytes differentiate into either CD8αβ(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes or CD4(+) helper T cells. This functional dichotomy is controlled by key transcription factors, including the helper T cell master regulator ThPOK, which suppresses the cytolytic program in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-restricted CD4(+) thymocytes. ThPOK continues(More)
Mouse CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) thymocytes differentiate into CD4+ helper-lineage cells upon expression of the transcription factor Th-POK but commit to the CD8+ cytotoxic lineage in its absence. We report the redirected differentiation of class I-restricted thymocytes into CD4+CD8- helper-like T cells upon loss of Runx transcription factor complexes. A(More)
CD4 and the transcription factor ThPOK are essential for the differentiation of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted thymocytes into the helper T cell lineage; their genes (Cd4 and Zbtb7b (called 'ThPOK' here)) are repressed by transcriptional silencer elements in cytotoxic T cells. The molecular mechanisms regulating expression of these(More)
The transcription factor Runx1 is a piv-otal regulator of definitive hematopoiesis in mouse ontogeny. Vertebrate Runx1 is transcribed from 2 promoters, the distal P1 and proximal P2, which provide a paradigm of the complex transcriptional and translational control of Runx1 function. However, very little is known about the biologic relevance of alternative(More)
The transcription factor Runx1 is a pivotal regulator of definitive hematopoiesis in mouse ontogeny. Vertebrate Runx1 is transcribed from 2 promoters, the distal P1 and proximal P2, which provide a paradigm of the complex transcriptional and translational control of Runx1 function. However, very little is known about the biologic relevance of alternative(More)
We isolated two mouse cDNA clones which show significant similarities with human angiotensin-converting enzyme-related carboxypeptidase (ACE2). The cDNAs were 2746 and 1995 bp in length and seemed to arise from the same gene by alternative splicing. The longer cDNA encoded a 798-amino acid protein containing the sequence motif conserved among zinc(More)
CD4(+) helper and CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells differentiate from common precursors in the thymus after T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated selection. Commitment to the helper lineage depends on persistent TCR signals and expression of the ThPOK transcription factor, whereas a ThPOK cis-regulatory element, ThPOK silencer, represses Thpok gene expression during(More)
Differentiation of MHC class II-selected thymocytes toward the CD4(+) helper lineage depends on function of the transcription factor ThPOK, whose expression is repressed in CD8(+) cytotoxic lineage cells by a transcriptional silencer activity within the distal regulatory element (DRE) in the Thpok gene. Interestingly, the DRE also functions as a(More)
A TCRβ enhancer, known as the Eβ enhancer, plays a critical role in V(D)J recombination and transcription of the Tcrb gene. However, the coordinated action of trans-acting factors in the activation of Eβ during T cell development remains uncharacterized. Here, we characterized the roles of Runx complexes in the regulation of the Eβ function. A single(More)