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The autonomic nervous system plays a critical role in regulating the cardiovascular responses to mental and physical stress. Recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that sympathetic outflow to the heart is modulated by the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, the cortical modulation of cardiovagal activity is still unclear in(More)
In general, cardiac regulation is dominated by the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems in men and women, respectively. Our recent study had revealed sex differences in the forebrain network associated with sympathoexcitatory response to baroreceptor unloading. The present study further examined the sex differences in forebrain modulation of(More)
The goal of this study was to investigate the neural correlates of affective decision making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which are associated with adolescent binge drinking. Fourteen adolescent binge drinkers (16-18 years of age) and 14 age-matched adolescents who had never consumed alcohol--never drinkers--were recruited from local high(More)
Inhibitory processes are highly relevant to behavioral control affecting decisions made daily. The Go/NoGo task is a common task used to tap basic inhibitory processes important in higher order executive functioning. The present study assessed neural correlates of response inhibition during performance of a Go/NoGo task in which NoGo signals or tests of(More)
The cortical regions representing peripheral autonomic reactions in humans are poorly understood. This study examined whether changes in forebrain activity were associated with the altered physiological responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) following a single bout of dynamic exercise (POST-EX). We hypothesized that, compared with the nonexercised(More)
BACKGROUND The loss of self-control or inability to resist tempting/rewarding foods, and the development of less healthful eating habits may be explained by three key neural systems: (1) a hyper-functioning striatum system driven by external rewarding cues; (2) a hypo-functioning decision-making and impulse control system; and (3) an altered insula system(More)
Using BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, we examined the relationships between activities in the neural systems elicited by the decision stage of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), and food choices of either vegetables or snacks high in fat and sugar. Twenty-three healthy normal weight adolescents and young adults, ranging in age from(More)
Beginning with clinical evidence of fatal cardiac arrhythmias in response to severe stress, in epileptic patients, and following stroke, the role of the cerebral cortex in autonomic control of the cardiovascular system has gained both academic and clinical interest. Studies in anesthetized rodents have exposed the role of several forebrain regions involved(More)
BACKGROUND Functional MRI was used to study the impact of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) on the cortical language network in patients with medically refractory TLE. METHODS Nineteen patients with medically refractory TLE and 11 healthy control subjects were enrolled in this study. Ten patients underwent left ATL (mean(More)
BACKGROUND The insular cortex (IC) has long been implicated in the central regulation of the autonomic nervous system but its precise role remains to be determined. We studied the role of IC in cardiovascular control using a multimodality approach consisting of isometric handgrip exercises, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation during(More)