Saurabh S. Kulkarni

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Many amphibian species exploit temporary or even ephemeral aquatic habitats for reproduction by maximising larval growth under benign conditions but accelerating development to rapidly undergo metamorphosis when at risk of desiccation from pond drying. Here we determine mechanisms enabling developmental acceleration in response to decreased water levels in(More)
Stress in fetal and larval life can impact later health and fitness in humans and wildlife. Long-term effects of early life stress are mediated by altered stress physiology induced during the process of relaying environmental effects on development. Amphibian metamorphosis has been an important model system to study the role of hormones in development in an(More)
A vast body of work exists on the endocrine regulation of frog metamorphosis ( Dodd and Dodd 1976 , Shi 1999 , Denver et al. 2002 , Buchholz et al. 2006 , Furlow and Neff 2006 , Brown and Cai 2007 ), and a separate set of literature describes the dramatic larval period diversity found among amphibians ( Duellman and Trueb 1994 , McDiarmid and Altig 1999 ).(More)
Direct developing frogs lack a free-living larval phase, such that miniature adults hatch directly from the eggs. Even under such extreme reorganization of the ancestral biphasic developmental pattern, direct developers still undergo thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent post-embryonic development. Hypothalamic regulation of TH synthesis and release plays a(More)
Hormones play critical roles in vertebrate development, and frog metamorphosis has been an excellent model system to study the developmental roles of thyroid hormone (TH) and glucocorticoids. Whereas TH regulates the initiation and rate of metamorphosis, the actions of corticosterone (CORT; the main glucocorticoid in frogs) are more complex. In the absence(More)
A major goal for understanding the role of thyroid hormone (TH) in development has been to identify genes regulated by TH in different tissues during frog metamorphosis. The exquisite dependence of metamorphosis on TH also provides a model to study TH endocrine disruption. To identify such TH-regulated genes and select biomarkers for TH endocrine(More)
Glucocorticoids play a key role in mediating stress responses in vertebrates. Corticosterone (CORT) is the main glucocorticoid produced in amphibians, birds, and reptiles, and regulates several metabolic functions. The most common methods for quantifying CORT are competitive binding immunoassays: radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RIA has(More)
Phenotypic differences among species may evolve through genetic accommodation, but mechanisms accounting for this process are poorly understood. Here we compare hormonal variation underlying differences in the timing of metamorphosis among three spadefoot toads with different larval periods and responsiveness to pond drying. We find that, in response to(More)
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