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We have discovered 21 new Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST ) and have used them to trace the history of cosmic expansion over the last 10 billion yr. These objects, which include 13 spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia at z 1, were discovered during 14 epochs of reimaging of theGOODSfields North and South over 2 yr with the(More)
RATIONALE The recent emergence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) as a potent cardioprotective signaling molecule necessitates the elucidation of its cytoprotective mechanisms. OBJECTIVE The present study evaluated potential mechanisms of H(2)S-mediated cardioprotection using an in vivo model of pharmacological preconditioning. METHODS AND RESULTS H(2)S (100(More)
Clinical studies have reported that the widely used antihyperglycemic drug metformin significantly reduces cardiac risk factors and improves clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms by which metformin exerts these cardioprotective effects remain unclear and may be independent of antihyperglycemic effects. We tested the hypothesis(More)
Aims. We present cosmological constraints from a joint analysis of type Ia supernova (SN Ia) observations obtained by the SDSS-II and SNLS collaborations. The data set includes several low-redshift samples (z < 0.1), all three seasons from the SDSS-II (0.05 < z < 0.4), and three years from SNLS (0.2 < z < 1), and it totals 740 spectroscopically confirmed(More)
OBJECTIVE Clinical studies have reported that metformin reduces cardiovascular end points of type 2 diabetic subjects by actions that cannot solely be attributed to glucose-lowering effects. The therapeutic effects of metformin have been reported to be mediated by its activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a metabolite sensing protein kinase(More)
We present constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w = P/(ρc), using 60 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the ESSENCE supernova survey. We derive a set of constraints on the nature of the dark energy assuming a flat Universe. By including constraints on (ΩM, w) from baryon acoustic oscillations, we obtain a value for a static(More)
The defining event in apoptosis is mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), allowing apoptogen release. In contrast, the triggering event in primary necrosis is early opening of the inner membrane mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), precipitating mitochondrial dysfunction and cessation of ATP synthesis. Bcl-2 proteins Bax and Bak(More)
The first cosmological results from the ESSENCE supernova survey (Wood-Vasey et al. 2007) are extended to a wider range of cosmological models including dynamical dark energy and non-standard cosmological models. We fold in a greater number of external data sets such as the recent Higher-z release of high-redshift supernovae (Riess et al. 2007) as well as(More)
BACKGROUND Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenous signaling molecule with potent cytoprotective effects. The present study evaluated the therapeutic potential of H(2)S in murine models of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS Heart failure was induced by subjecting mice either to permanent ligation of the left coronary artery for 4 weeks or to 60 minutes(More)
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenously produced gaseous signaling molecule with diverse physiological activity. The potential protective effects of H(2)S have not been evaluated in the liver. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if H(2)S could afford hepatoprotection in a murine model of hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Hepatic(More)