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The apicomplexan Cryptosporidium parvum is an intestinal parasite that affects healthy humans and animals, and causes an unrelenting infection in immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients. We report the complete genome sequence of C. parvum, type II isolate. Genome analysis identifies extremely streamlined metabolic pathways and a reliance on the(More)
Slaughterhouse pig samples were analyzed by PCR for Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection. Thirty-two percent were found to be positive, with rates being higher over the summer months. Three isolates from pigs were identical in their ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence to human E. bieneusi type D, two were identical to type F (from a pig), and nine(More)
Cryptosporidium species cause acute gastroenteritis and diarrhoea worldwide. They are members of the Apicomplexa--protozoan pathogens that invade host cells by using a specialized apical complex and are usually transmitted by an invertebrate vector or intermediate host. In contrast to other Apicomplexans, Cryptosporidium is transmitted by ingestion of(More)
Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are enteric pathogens that have emerged as significant causes of persistent diarrhea (PD) in immunologically compromised individuals particularly in association with HIV/AIDS. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the clinical epidemiology of E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium in children with PD, with and(More)
Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most common microsporidian parasite recognized in human patients with AIDS. Recently, we identified a virtually identical organism causing a spontaneous infection associated with hepatobiliary and intestinal disease in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. To examine the natural history of the infection, we(More)
The eaeA gene of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is necessary for intimate attachment to epithelial cells in vitro. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains also possess an eae gene and are capable of intimate attachment and microvillus effacement in vitro and in animal models. To assess the role of the EHEC eae gene in intimate attachment, we(More)
We reported previously that mutation of the chromosomal gene eaeA from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7 prevented bacterial attachment in vivo. Attachment was restored when the EHEC or enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) eaeA gene was introduced into the mutant on a plasmid. In this communication we have compared in gnotobiotic piglets(More)
The prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in the general population is unknown. Using genetic tools, we investigated its prevalence and contribution to diarrhea and malnutrition in hospitalized children in Uganda. A cross-sectional, case-control study involving diarrheic children who were matched for age and sex (3:1) with control children. Measurements(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and risk factors for infection associated with diarrhea in HIV-infected patients in Harare, Zimbabwe. DESIGN Prospective observational study. METHODS Single stool samples were collected from 88 HIV-infected individuals presenting with diarrhea of greater than 1 week duration. Stools were(More)
The Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin serotype A light chain (BoNT/A-LC) is a Zn(II)-dependent metalloprotease that blocks the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction by cleaving SNAP-25, one of the SNARE proteins required for exocytosis. Because of the potential for use of the toxin in bioterrorism and the increasingly widespread application(More)