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As the obligate heterodimer partner to class II nuclear receptors, the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plays a vital physiological role in the regulation of multiple hepatic functions, including bile formation, intermediary metabolism, and endobiotic/xenobiotic detoxification. Many RXRalpha-regulated genes are themselves suppressed in inflamed liver(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if immunomodulatory treatment including intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) can favorably affect survival in neontatal hemochromatosis (NH) diagnosed postnatally because it can effectively prevent occurrence of NH when applied during gestations at risk. STUDY DESIGN We treated 16 newborn infants with liver failure due to NH with(More)
In recent years the discovery of a number of major transporter proteins expressed in the liver and intestine specifically involved in bile acid transport has led to improved understanding of bile acid homeostasis and the enterohepatic circulation. Sodium (Na(+))-dependent bile acid uptake from portal blood into the liver is mediated primarily by the Na(+)(More)
Phytosterols, components of soy-derived lipids, are among the proposed exacerbants of parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (PNAC). We investigated whether phytosterols contribute to bile acid (BA)-induced hepatocyte damage by antagonizing a nuclear receptor (NR) critically involved in hepatoprotection from cholestasis, FXR (farnesoid X receptor,(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Hepatic bile acid homeostasis is regulated by negative feedback inhibition of genes involved in the uptake and synthesis of bile acids. Bile acids down-regulate the rate-limiting gene for bile acid synthesis, cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (cyp7a), via bile acid receptor (fxr) activation of an inhibitory nuclear receptor, shp. We(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Chronic cholangiopathies have limited therapeutic options and represent an important indication for liver transplantation. Curcumin, the yellow pigment of the spice turmeric, has pleiotropic actions and attenuates hepatic damage in animal models of chemically-induced liver injury. Whether curcumin has beneficial effects in(More)
Sodium-dependent uptake of bile acids across the hepatic basolateral membrane is rapidly and profoundly diminished during sepsis, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of sepsis-associated cholestasis. This effect is mediated by endotoxin or effector cytokines, which reduce expression of several hepatobiliary transporters, including the sodium-dependent(More)
Partial hepatectomy leads to an orchestrated regenerative response, activating a cascade of cell signaling events necessary for cell cycle progression and proliferation of hepatocytes. However, the identity of the humoral factors that trigger the activation of these pathways in the concerted regenerative response in hepatocytes remains elusive. In recent(More)
Cytosolic and nuclear Ca(2+) have been shown to differentially regulate transcription. However, the impact of spatially distinct Ca(2+) signals on mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated gene expression remains unknown. Here we investigated the role of nuclear and cytosolic Ca(2+) signals in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced transactivation of the(More)
Patients with neonatal urea cycle defects (UCDs) typically have high mortality and poor neurological outcome unless they receive liver transplantation. Neurologic outcome may be better with liver transplantation before age one year. We report on a follow up on an initial prospective study performed to assess developmental outcome after early liver(More)